Archives May 2013

Electroplating, sometimes called electrodeposition, is the process by which an electric current, provided by an external supply of direct current such as a battery, is passed through a solution resulting in the chemical breakdown of this electrolyte. This results in metal being transferred from one electrode—the anode— via metal ions in the solution, to the other—the cathode—which has the effect of the target object being coated with a thin layer of the metal that had formed the anode. The Italian chemist Luigi Brugnatelli (1761-1818) is credited with inventing electroplating in 1805. He used Alessandro Volta's earlier invention of a battery, the voltaic pile, to facilitate the first electrodeposition. Electroplating is used in many industries for decorative as well as functional purposes. It can increase the value or improve the appearance of an object. For example, jewelry is often gold-plated, and silverware may be made of cheaper metal coated with silver. more...

"The medics used the [super glue] spray, stopped the bleeding.... And many, many lives were saved." Harry Coover In 1942 Harry Coover (b. 1919), a chemist working for Eastman-Kodak, was seeking a way to manufacture ultra-clear plastic gunsights. The group of chemicals his team were investigating, the cyanoacrylates, proved not very useful. They were very sticky, and contact with even a tiny amount of water (such as is found on virtually every surface) caused them to bind. It was not until several years later, when he revisited the cyanoacrylates while working on another project, that Coover realized they had stumbled upon something special. The prototype glue stuck together everything they tried, without requiring any heat or pressure. The substance, marketed as "Eastman 910"in 1958, became popularly known as super glue. As well as being a powerful and useful adhesive, super glue has been put to a number of other uses. more...

“Fill your bowl to the brim and it will spill. Keep sharpening your knife and it will blunt." Lao Tzu, Taoist philosopher When the Swiss Karl Elsener (1860-1918), owner of a company that made surgical equipment, found that the pocket knives supplied to the Swiss army were, in fact, made in Germany, Elsener decided to make them in Switzerland. With help from engineer Jeannine Keller, he launched a multifunctional pocket knife in 1891. Called the "Soldier's Knife," it had a wooden handle and incorporated a cutting blade, screwdriver, can opener, and punch. The knife was adopted by the Swiss army, but Elsener continued to work on the design. In 1896 he developed a knife with blades at either end of the wooden handle and a spring to hold them in place. This innovation enabled Elsener to increase the number of useful tools in the handle for the Swiss army, so more...

The evening walk has its own pleasure as evening time is as thrilling as morning. Because of the sunset sky is scarlet colored. The heat of the summer season due to sun cools down by the  evening time. People have a pleasant walk in nearby parks and gardens. In cities people after taking their dinner go out for an evening walk with their families. There is a lot of time with the people at this moment as they have no other work to do before going to bed. The entire tiredness is gone with the fragrant smell of flowers in the park, and they feel refreshed. There is good crowd in the parks. There are lots of children, young and old there. Children are seen playing different types of games. Some of them playing with the Balloons. Young ones have a stroll on green grassy carpet of the park. The more...

Once I went to Allahabad to join a ceremony. Many other relations had come. It is a religious thing to have a bath in Ganga and specialty at Sangam where three rivers, meet. We decided to go for a bath in Ganga. We chalked out a programme to go on a boat from Baluaghat to Sangam. The idea was liked by all. So we started on foot to Baluaghat. We were 16 in number. We chose a small boat beautifully decorated. The remuneration was settled and we sat in the boat. There v/ere two boat-men. They asked us to sit properly on both the sides of the boat. The boat sailed. It moved gently. We saw the buildings on the banks. It was pleasant sight to watch. We were going down the current. So the boatmen had not to work hard. We passed by the famous fort of Allahabad. It more...

We Indians are madly after everything foreign-dress, manners, food, education and what not. Indian music is considered to be inferior to 'disco' and 'jaaz'. The feminine shyness has been replaced by the blunt talks and staring looks of the ladies. Speaking a foreign language has become a fashion. The young like to work as labourers in America instead of taking up a good job within their own country.  To feed guests, we go to 'mod' restaurants where young boys and girls in jeans sway and scream around a "mike" while  he band blares "rock music". The more discordant the music, the more happy the guests are. The guests jump about on the dance floor, their hearts throb wildly, their bodies jerk excitedly to the clang and bang of "jet set music". The imported crystal chandeliers and gilded furniture are some objects which decorate our houses and restaurants. The restaurants must more...

A Principal has a very important place in the working of the school. He can improve the standard of education in the school. He is a central figure in the school. Mr. R.L. Sharma is our Principal. He is a tall and strong man. He has a well built body. He has a grand personality. His appearance is pleasing. He is always neat and clean in his dress. He is M.A., B.T. Our Principal is able, highly qualified and hard working. He is very noble and honest. He takes great interest in his work. He is the friend and guide of the students. We regard him as our Guru. Besides being a good teacher he is a good administrator. He teaches us English. He is a lover of honesty. He is famous for his method of teaching. Students take interest in his class. He teaches us so nicely that we more...

A soldier is the symbol of a nation's pride and strength. He represents the armed forces of the country. He is trained to lead a very hard and disciplined life. He undergoes a very rigorous training. He is the defender of country's freedom and integrity his life is very uncertain during war times. He may be ordered to attack the enemy at any moment. He may have to spend many days continuously lying in a trench, waiting for his commander's orders. Any bullet from the enemy gun may end his life any moment. In the peace time he follows a very strict schedule. His life is very regular and disciplined. In the early morning he leaves his bed and gets ready to go to parade ground. There he undergoes a very rigorous physical training. A practical training to use the arms is also provided to him. Training to learn signals, more...

Dussehra is the festival of Kshattriyas. But all Hindus observe this festival with great joy. Dussehra comes in the Hindi month of Kuwar. It is said that in olden days, the kings and rulers marched out of their kingdoms to conquer new areas on this very day after the rainy season. It is also said that the Goddess Durga killed the demon on this day. Hence this festival is observed on this day in her honour. It is also said that Ram killed Ravana on this day. The festival has different meanings for the different people. People think that any work begun on this day will bring good luck. The Kshattriyas take out their arms. They clean and worship them on this day. In the evening, people go to visit friends and relations at their houses. Betels are freely offered to visitors on this day The girls also observe this more...

One  of the  most  beautiful achievements of man is a garden. Man has loved gardens and gardening from the earliest times. Gardening is a delightful and interesting hobby. 'Garden refreshes the spirit of a man, without which buildings and palaces are but gross handy works,' wrote Bacon. A beautiful garden is in itself a constant source of pleasure. It forms a quiet retreat where one can rest far from the madding crowd. Soothed by the singing of birds, a weary man enjoys soothing coolness. Smooth green lawns of grass with beds of gay flowers fill the air with sweet smell. No wonder, man has dreamt of garden, the Paradise on earth. It is the expression of his first state of innocence,                          Gardening promotes physical as well as mental health. Looking after a garden all the year round with more...


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