Archives October 2013

Now a day there is a large scale of migration of people from villages to big cities. Though the villages have greenery, peace and fresh air yet there are little chances for searching good jobs. Moreover there are different charms and attractions of big cities, which attract these people. In cities roads are property metalled and, well lighted. There is large number of civic amenities available in the cities. Cities have proper sanitation system Treated pure water is available. There are different types of public transportation facilities. There are big parks. Streets and roads have proper lighting system. There are well furnished houses in the cities. All these facilities are not available in villages Big cities have a complete education system. There are big universities. Government and  posh private public schools. There are big libraries. By living in big cities we can know about the all out development of country more...

Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the beloved leader of the people of India After her downfall in 1977, the people had again placed the country in her hands in 1980. She was born on Nov. 19,1917. She was brought up in a family full of political activities and love of country. So the family atmosphere had a great influence on her mind. She got her education at Allahabad, Oxford and Shanti Niketan. In 1942 she was married to Mr. Feroz Gandhi, a Parasi youth. He died in 1960, she had two sons-Rajiv and Sanjay. Indira Gandhi was the worthy daughter of a worthy father. She was a born politician. After the death of her mother she had a very difficult time. In her early life she jumped into politics. She had been the member of Indian National Congress. In 1950 she was elected  President of N. Congress. It was only after more...

"Camouflage is a game we like to play, but our secrets are revealed by... what we want to conceal" Russell Lynes, author and editor Although hunters and some elite military units had long made use of camouflage, most armies, until the end of the nineteenth century, wore brightly colored, distinctive uniforms to distinguish friend from foe on the battlefield among gunpowder smoke and to attract new recruits. The British Army was the first to eschew bright uniforms in favor of those that would help to conceal their men. Heavy casualties during the Indian Revolt of 1857 forced them to dye their scarlet tunics a dull brown color, or "khaki." White summer uniforms were dyed using the simple and quintessentially British expedient of dipping them in tea. Khaki uniforms became standard in India in the 1880s and in the rest of the army during the Second Boer War in 1902. At more...

“I have succeeded in establishing methods for fabricating arms exactly alike, and with economy." John H. Hall Prior to the invention of the breech-loader, firearms had been loaded from the end of the barrel (muzzle- loaders), an operation that took considerable time to complete. The first breech-loading rifle to see action in combat was developed by Major Patrick Ferguson and was actually a breech-loading version of a flintlock rifle. Despite being superior to conventional flintlocks in terms of rate of fire, the weapon was notorious for breaking and did not achieve widespread use. The rifle of John H. Hall (1781-1841), the M1819, was a single-shot, breech-loader; the powder and ball were still loaded separately, but instead of being inserted into the end of the long barrel and rammed into the chamber using a rod, the rifle "broke" in the middle and the ball and powder could be loaded directly into more...

“An optimist is a person who sees a green light everywhere, while a pessimist sees only the red." Albert Schweitzer, Alsatian philosopher Henry Ford opened his first factory in America in 1903 and, with horse-drawn carts, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars sharing the treacherous and largely unlegislated roads, accidents were frequent. Garrett Morgan (1877-1963), an African-American inventor, was inspired to design the traffic signal after witnessing a horrific crash 'between a horse-drawn carriage and a motor .car. The invention was an indication of Morgan's perceptiveness; long before automobiles were as prevalent on the roads as they are today, he had the foresight to predict a problem and engineer a solution. It is a testament to his design that the signals are still in use today. Morgan came from humble roots. The son of a former slave, his formal education ended after elementary school, but his natural talent for fixing and inventing more...

India has repeatedly said it wants peace with its neighbourers and utilise its nuclear option for peaceful purposes. But it must also be prepared to defend itself in case some enemy attacks it. India is no exception. China and Pakistan are India's neighbours. They have utilized every resource to prepare themselves in case of a war. China is now not only major nuclear power in Asia, it has also helped Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons. Pakistan has also been enjoying economic and military aid from the U.S.  India, being a big country, too has to make her presence felt in the region. For this to be accomplished, she has been involved in nuclear research since long. India faced a crushing and humiliating defeat in its war with China in 1962, and this has forced her to be prepared for any threat in future. Manufacturing nuclear weapons is very important for more...

As long as railways have existed, there have been model versions. Initially, the trains were Just pull-along, but they gradually developed to use miniature steam or clockwork engines. By 1891, the German company Marklin was selling a wind-up locomotive together with an expandable track system. Then, in 1896, Carlisle and Finch produced the first electric toy train powered by batteries. American entrepreneur Joshua Lionel Cowen (1877-1965) had a long-term interest in trains. At the age of seven he had whittled a locomotive out of wood, which exploded when he tried to fit it with a steam engine. Years later when he was researching products for his manufacturing company in New York to sell, he spotted a push train in a shop window and had the idea for a toy train that could run without supervision on a track. He initially envisaged it as an eye-catching window display for a toy more...

Introduction. 15th August is the biggest National Festival of India. On this day in 1947, India got freedom from the British rule. For many years foreigners ruled over India. The morning of 15th August 1947, brought a new hope in the hearts of all Indian men, women and children. From that day we celebrate this auspicious day with great pomp and show.  Struggle against the Britishers. Freedom of India was the result of ninny sacrifices of our national leaders.  Mahatma Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Subhash Chander Bose, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad ind many others struggled against the English rule and went to jail many (lines. All these leaders demanded 'Total Independence' and nothing less. Mahatma Gandhi raised his voice against the exploitation only by his non- Violent ways. Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subhash Chander Bose went abroad many times to raise their voice and win the confidence of more...

"The science of cryptography is very elegant ...the ends for which it's used is less elegant." James Sanborn, sculptor In 1926 the German Army adopted a supposedly impenetrable electro-mechanical encryption device that eventually proved their undoing in World War II. Eight years earlier, electrical engineer Arthur Scherbius (1878-1929) had developed the first model of the Enigma machine, a bulky contraption incorporating a full-sized typewriter and three rotors to code messages. When typing a letter, the first one of these electrical discs rotated and caused .the next one to do likewise, similar to the wheels in an odometer. Wires connecting the rotors provided an electrical path from the keys on the typewriter to the output end plate, with the various connections in between ensuring that the final product of the plaintext input was ciphered. However, the army deemed Scherbius's initial 110- pound (50 kg) Enigma A and B to be insufficiently more...

Coal is a very useful and important mineral. It is black and hard. It is lifted from coal mines. Coal is nothing but the wood in forests that went underground thousands of years ago. There are different kinds of coal such as peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite. Anthracite is the best variety of coal. There are many coal mines in India. Of these Raniganj, Jharia, Chirimiri and Chandrapur are famous for their coal mines. Coal has different uses. It is chiefly used as fuel. It is the main source of energy resources. Coal is used to produce thermal electric power and steam power. Coal has also other uses. From it we get gas, dyes, tar, nylon, naphthalene and many other useful byproducts. Thus, coal has occupied an important place in our day to day life. However, its quantity is limited on the earth and we have used up a large more...


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