10th Class English Grammar (All Topics) Conjunctions

Conjunctions

Category : 10th Class

*         Conjunctions

 

Introduction: A Conjunction is a word which joins together sentences and Sometimes words.

Conjunctions are of two kinds:

(i) Coordinating

(ii) Subordinating

A Conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, phrases or clauses together.  

 

 

(i)   A honest and intelligent boy.

(ii)  A new pair of shoes as well as an old pair of shoes.

(iii) Radha sings but Meera dances.

In example (i), 'and' joins the two words ('honest' and 'intelligent'); in example (ii) 'as well as' joins two group of words ('new pair of shoes' and 'old pair of shoes'); and in example (iii), 'but' joins two  sentences ('Radha sings' and 'Meera dances').

A same word may be an Adverb, a Preposition or a Conjunction.  

 

 

(i)   I saw her before. (Adverb)

(ii)  She stood before me. (Preposition)

(iii) He shall do it before I return from office. (Conjunction)

Compound Conjunctions are groups of words that are sometimes used to do the work of single Conjunctions.  

 

 

(i)   Varun as well Alok went there.

(ii)  He acted as if (or as though) he was mad.

(iii) I shall help you in case you fail.  

 

*            Kinds of Conjunctions  

(A) Coordinating Conjunctions Join words or phrases or clauses of equal rank.  

 

 

 

(i)   He said this to him and me.

(ii)  She sat behind you, but in front of me.

(iii) You may go; only make no noise.      

(B) Subordinating Conjunctions are those that join a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause.  

 

 

(i)   He said that he was ill.

(iï)  I shall go if you come.

(iii) As I am ill, I cannot go.  

Some Important Conjunctions and Their Uses

1.             After 'not only'... 'but also' is used.

Similarly, after 'either' ... 'or'; after 'neither' ... 'nor'; and after 'both'... 'and' is used. These Conjunctions are always in pairs and are sometimes called Correlative Conjunctions or Correlatives.

2.             'Yet' is used after 'Although' and Though'.

3.             After 'both' there is always the usage of 'and'. But problems are normally created by using as well as / or / else, etc.

4.             After 'whether' there is always the usage of 'or'. But problems are normally created by using that, etc. with 'whether'.

5.             'So ... as' / 'As ... as' is used in Positive degree to bring comparison between persons or things. Also remember that, 'so ... as' is used in Negative sentences.

6.             After 'hardly' and 'scarcely', 'when' is used. But Nesfield has approved of the usage of 'before' after them.

7.             'Seldom /fever' or 'Seldom or never' is always used.

8.             After 'rather' and 'other', there is the usage of 'than'. But problems are generally created by using 'but' or any other Conjunction after them.

9.             'Or' is used after 'Not' / 'Never'.

10.         After 'Lest', 'should' is used.

11.         'That' or 'As' is used after 'the same'. Remember that, 'that' is used after 'the same' when the corresponding Verb gives a clear meaning.

12.         After 'such', 'as' is used.

13.         'That' is used after 'such' only when there is a Clause after 'that'

14.         Until and Unless

'Until' refers to a 'scheduled time'; while 'unless' refers to a 'condition with if not'.

15.         Problems are generally created by using therefore / so / thus, etc. after because / since / as, etc.

16.         Before a Relative Pronoun the Conjunction 'and' is never used.

But using so, problems are generally created.

17.         That I as to, etc. are not used before Interrogative and Relative Adverbs like - when / where / why / how / how much / how far / how long I to what extent, etc.

18.         The U.S.A.ge of that/as to, etc. before Interrogative words like- who I whom / which / whose / what, etc. is wrong.

19.         'Not' is never used after unless f until / lest, etc., because the meaning of 'not' is already hidden in them. Problems are normally created by using 'not' with unless / until / lest, etc.

20.         After 'else', 'but' is used.  

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