11th Class Biology Digestion and Absorption Nutritional Imbalances And Disorders

Nutritional Imbalances And Disorders

Category : 11th Class

Balanced diet : The diet which contain the various nutrients in such proportions as can satisfy all the various needs of our body, is called a 'balanced diet'. The proportion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into fulfill energy requirement is 4 : 1 : 1 i.e. 65% of energy is obtained from carbohydrates and \[1020%\]each from proteins and fats. This amount of energy is fulfilled by intake of \[400600\text{ }gm\]of carbohydrates, \[80100\text{ }gm\]of proteins and \[5060\text{ }gm\]of fats. The balanced diet must also contain sufficient amount of minerals and vitamins.

 

Balanced diet for moderately active adult Indian

Name of food

Recommended amounts (gms. per day)

Adult man

Adult woman

(1) Cereals (Wheat/Rice)

520

440

(2) Pulses

50

45

(3) Milk

200

150

(4) Meat/Fish or Egg

30

30

(5) Fats (Oil, Butter, Ghee)

45

25

(6) Sugar/Molasses

35

20

(7) Root and Tubers (Raddish, Potato, etc.)

60

50

(8) Green leafy vegetables

40

100

(9) Other vegetables

70

40

 

Composition of milk

Species

Water

Protein

Fat

Lactose

Camel

87.2

3.7

4.2

4.1

Cow

87.2

3.5

3.7

4.9

Buffalo

78.6

5.9

10.4

4.3

Goat

86.5

3.6

4.0

5.1

Human

87.5

1.0

4.4

7.0

 

Metabolic rates

(1) Basal metabolic rate : Amount of energy required daily by a person to maintain its basal metabolism and is about 1600 k cal/day.

(2) Routine metabolic rate : Amount of energy required daily by a person to do his routine work. It is about 2800 k cal/day for males and 2300 k cal for female.

(3) Active metabolic rate : Amount of energy required daily by a person to maintain its high metabolic rate during heavy physical work and is about 4000 to 6000 k cal/day for males and 4500 k cal for females. It has been scientifically determined that a child of \[46\] years approximately requires 1500, a child of \[1315\] years requires 2500 and a youth of \[1618\] year requires 3000 k cal of energy per day.

 

Daily Dietary Requirements of Nutrients (Recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research)

Individual

Total kcal

Protein (gms.)

Calcium (gms.)

Iron (mgs.)

Vitamin \[A\,(\mu g.)\]

Thiamin (mgs)

Riboflavin (mgs.)

Niacin (mgs.)

Folacin \[(\mu g)\]

Vitamin \[{{B}_{12}}\,\,(\mu g).\]

Vitamin C (mgs.)

Vitamin \[D\,\,(IU)\]

(1) Man Moderately active

2800

55

0.4-0.5

24

750

1.4

1.7

19

100

1

40

 

(2) Woman

(i) Moderately      active

(ii) Pregnant

2200

2700

 

2750

45

59

 

70

0.4-0.5

1.0

 

1.0

32

40

 

32

750

750

 

1150

1.1

1.3

 

1.4

1.3

1.5

 

1.6

15

17

 

19

100

300

 

150

1

1.5

 

1.5

40

40

 

80

 

(3) Boy

(16-18 years)

2820

53

0.5-0.6

25

750

1.4

1.7

19

100

1

40

200

(4) Girl

(16-18 years)

2200

44

0.5-0.6

35

750

1.1

1.3

15

100

1

40

200

 

Nutritional disorders : Every organism requires an adequate supply of nutrients in proper proportion in their diet for proper growth and development. There are two types of nutritional disorders

(1) Diseases due to over nutrition

(i) Fluorosis : Caused due to excess of fluorides. It results in tooth and bone decay.

(ii) Obesity : This is over-nutritional disorder. It is caused when 'energy inputs exceeds energy output'. It results in deposition of excess fat in the body.

(iii) Constipation : Slow movement of faeces down the large intestine causes accumulation of dry and hard stool is colon. It is generally caused by irregular bowel habits.

(iv) Diarrhoea : Rapid movement of faecal matter down the large intestine causes loose stools called diarrhoea. It may be also caused by viral or bacterial infections of intestinal tract, particularly of large intestine and by nervous tension.

(v) Piles or haemmorhoids : Enlargement of the anal veins. It may be either hereditary or may be caused due to rapid changes in the diet.

(vi) Hypercholesterolemia : Caused due to excess of saturated fats like butter, ghee, hydrogenated vegetable oils and eggs etc. It results in increased level of cholesterol in blood, arteriosclerosis, coronary thrombosis, heart attack etc.

(vii) Hypervitaminosis A : It results in loss of appetite, body hairs, painful swelling etc.

(viii) Hypervitaminosis D : It results in deposition of calcium ion in the soft tissues of the body.

(2) Diseases due to deficiency of nutrition (malnutrition)

 

Name of the Deficiency

Deficient Nutrient

Symptoms

Anaemia (microcytic)

Fe

Haemoglobin and number of erythrocytes gets reduced.

Megaloblastic anaemia

Folic acid and \[{{B}_{12}}\]

Presence of immature erythrocytes in blood.

Pernicious anaemia

Vitamin \[{{B}_{12}}\]

Immature RBC without Hb. This may be fatal unless treated with vitamin \[{{B}_{12}}\] injection.

Xerophthalmia

Vitamin A

Thickened, keratinised, opaque ulcerated cornea. Prime cause of blindness in India, especially among children.

Night Blindness

Vitamin A

Less rhodopsin in rod cells of retina. So no vision in dim light.

Rickets (in children)

Vitamin D

Weak, soft, thin bones due to poor deposition of Ca and P. Bent long bones and painful swelling on wrist, elbow and knee joints.

Osteomalacia (adults)

Vitamin D

Weak bones of vertebral column, pelvis gets bent and deformed by body weight.

Sprue

Folacin

Ulceration of mouth, inflammation of bowel, indigestion, diarrhoea, weakness.

Pigeons breast

\[Vit.D\]

Incomplete ossification at the end of limb bone, deformed ribs leading to pigeons breast.

Beri ? beri

Vitamin \[{{B}_{1}}\] (Thiamine)

Reduces aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. So peripheral nerves inflammed causing pain, numbness and weakness of limb muscles. Paralysis.

Fluid accumulation in tissues or oedema of hands and legs. Cardiac oedema.

Scurvy

Vitamin C

Fragile blood vessels because of defective collagen fibres in their walls. Bleeding gums, teeth fall, bones fragile. Wound healing delayed, vitamin C recommended in serious injury.

Bleeding disease

(Hypoprothrombin anaemia)

Vitamin K

Delayed blood clotting (s) so profuse bleeding.

Marasmus

Protein / Malnutrition

Growth and replacement of tissue proteins imparted so emaciated body with their limbs and prominent ribs, dry, thin and wrinkled skin, Diarrhoea. It affects infants under one year of age.

Kwashiorkor

Protein

Wasting muscles, thin limbs, Retarded growth of body and brain, Oedema, Diarrhoea. It commonly affects babies between \[1-3\] years of age.

Pellagra

Nicotinamide

Swollen lips, thick pigmented skin of hands and legs. Irritability.

Osteoporosis

\[Ca\]

Weakning of bones, tooth decay.

Goitre

\[{{I}_{2}}\]

Enlargement of thyroid gland.

Muscular cramps

\[NaCl\]

Pulling of muscles due to dehydration.

Dental cramps

Fluorine

Tooth decay.

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