11th Class Biology Plant Tissue Anatomy (Tissue System) Special Or Secretory Tissues

Special Or Secretory Tissues

Category : 11th Class

These tissue perform special function in plants, e.g., secretion of resins gum, oil and latex.

These tissues are of two types :

(1) Laticiferous tissues : They are made up of thin walled, elongated, branched and multinucleate (coenocytic) structures that contain colourless, milky or yellow coloured juice called latex. These occur irregularly distributed in the mass of parenchymatous cells. Latex is contained inside the laticiferous tissue which is of two types :

(i) Latex cells : A laticiferous cell is a highly branched cell with long slender processes ramifying in all directions in the ground tissue of the organ. They do not fuse and do not form network. Plants having such tissues are called simple or non-articulated laticifers. e.g., Calotropis (Asclepiadaceae) Nerium, Vinca (Apocyanaceae), Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus (Moraceae).

(ii) Latex vessels : They are formed due to fusion of cells and form network like structure in all directions. At maturity, they form a highly ramifying system of channels full of latex inside the organ. Plants having such tissues are called compound or articulated laticifers. e.g., Argemone, Papaver (Papaveraceae), Sonchus (Compositae), Hevea, Manihot (Euphorbiaceae).

(2) Glandular tissue : This is a highly specialized tissue consisting of glands, discharging diverse functions, including  secretory and excretory. Glands may be external or internal.

(i) External glands : They generally occur on the epidermis of stem and leaves as glandular hair in Plumbago and Boerhaavia, stinging hair secrete poisonous substance in Urtica dioica, nectar secreting glands in flowers or leaves. e.g., Rutaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Digestive enzyme secreting glands in insectivorous plants e.g., Drosera (Sundew), Nepenthes (Pitcher plant).

(ii) Internal glands : These are present internally and are of several types. e.g., oil glands in Citrus and Eucalyptus, resinous ducts in Pinus, mucilage canals in Cycas. Water secreting glands (hydathodes) in Colocasia (present at the tip of leaves), Tropaeoleum (along margin), etc. The glands which secrete essential oil are called osmophores (osmotrophs).

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