12th Class Biology Biotechnology And Its Applications Devices

Devices

Category : 12th Class

Three types of medical devices used nowadays are implants, disposables and external prosthesis.

(1) Implants     

Implants are devices used for replacng a diseased organ or tissue within the body.

Implants must be non-toxic and biocompatible and are used for replacing joint, arteries, heart valves, etc., and occasionally helpful in cosmetic surgery.

Artificial Heart Valve

(i) Artificial heart valves may be either mechanical or made of human or animal tissues.

(ii) Mechanical valves are made from special biocompatible plastics, metal alloys and ceramics.

(iii)  Tissue valves are taken from cadavers of pigs or made from the pericardium of animals.

(iv) Mechanical valves develop tendency of clotting of blood, so the patient must have regular medication of anticoagulants.

(v) Tissue valves do not require anticoagulants, but they tend to calcify, particularly in young.

(2) Disposables

(i) Oxygenator

(a) The first open heart surgery was performed by Walton Lillehel (USA) in 1953 by meant of a procedure, called heart-lung bypass.

(b) Oxygenator is used in open-heart surgery to oxygenate the blood passing through the heart-lung machine.

(c) Oxygenator can be called as an artificial lung. Two common types of oxygenators currently used are bubble oxygenator and membrane oxygenator.

(d) Bubble oxygenators are used for shorter operation whereas membrane oxygenators are more suitable for longer operations and for operation of infants.

 

Landmarks in Medicine : Diagnosis and Surgery

Invention/ Development

Year

Inventor/Scientist 

Country

Thermometer

1593

Galileo Galilei

Italy

Medical thermometer

1612

Sanctorius

Italy

Stethoscope

1810

Rene Laennec

France

Ophthalmoscope

1851

Hermann Von Helmhotz

Germany

Antiseptic surgery

1870

Joseph Lister

Britain

X-rays

1895

Wilhelm Roentgen

Germany

Electrocardiograph (ECG)

1906

Willem Einthoven

Netherland

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

1929

Hans Berger

Germany

Cardiac pacemaker

1932

A.S. Hyman

USA

Kidney dialysis machine

1945

Willem Kolff

Netherland

Coronary artery bypass graft

1951

Arthur Vineberg

Canada

Open heart surgery

1953

Walton Lillehel

USA

Kidney transplant

1955

Joseph Murray

USA

Artificial heart

1957

Willem Kolff

Netherland

Fibre-optic endoscopy

1957

Basil Hirschowitz

USA

Laser

1960

T.H. Maimah

USA

Heart transplant surgery

1967

Christiaan Barnard

South Africa

NMR imaging

1971

Raymond Damadian

USA

CAT scanner

1972

Godfrey

Hounsfield, Alan Cormack

Britain

USA

Coronary angioplasty

1976

Andrease Gruntzig

Switzerland

"Test-tube baby'

1978

Patrick Steptoe

Robert Edwards

Britain

Britain

PET scanner

1985

Louis Sokoloff

USA

Two-hand transplant

2000

Jean-Michel Dubernard

France

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