12th Class Biology Reproduction And Development In Animals Phases Of Embryonic Development

Phases Of Embryonic Development

Category : 12th Class

Embryonic development involves following dynamic changes and identifiable process.

(1) Gametogenesis : It involve the formation of haploid sex cells or gametes called sperms and ova from diploid primary germ cells called gametogonia present in the reproductive organs called gonads (testes and ovary). It is of two types

(i) Spermatogenesis : Formation of sperm.

(ii) Oogenesis : Formation of ova

(2) Fertilization : It involve the fusion of haploid male and female gametes to form diploid zygote. The fusion of gametic pronuclei is called Karyogamy while the mixing of two sets of chromosomes of two gametes is called amphimixis.

(3) Cleavage : It includes the rapid mitotic division of the zygote to form a single layered hollow spherical larva called blastula and its formation is called blastulation.

(4) Implantation : The process of attachment of the blastocyst (mammalian blastula) on the endometrium of the uterus is called implantation.

(5) Gastrulation : It includes the mass and orderly migration of the organ specific areas from the surface of blastula to their predetermined position which finally produces a 3 layered gastrula larva. It is with 3 primary layers.

(6) Organogenesis : It includes the formation of specific organs system from three primary germ layers of gastrula and also includes the morphogenesis and differentiation.

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