# 2nd Class Mathematics Shapes and Patterns Patterns

## Patterns

Category : 2nd Class

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• identify patterns in shapes, numbers and letters, observe and extend given patterns.
• create block patterns by stamping thumb prints, leaf prints, vegetable prints, etc.
• create patterns from shapes, numbers and letters.
• describe given patterns.

QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW

A pattern shows the same thing again and again. It is an arrangement of objects; numbers or letters with some fixed rule.

Look at the patterns made with circles and tiles.

In the first pattern you can see one shaded and one unshaded circle getting repeated.

In the second pattern a square is divided diagonally and shaded half.

KINDS OF PATTERNS

• Patterns are of different kinds – repeating patterns and increasing or decreasing patterns.

1. Repeating Pattern

In repeating pattern same things appear again and again.

(a)

(b)   A        B       A       B      A       B       A       B

2. Increasing Pattern In increasing pattern things increase in size or number.

(a)    X                    XX           XXX        XXXX

(b)

3. Decreasing Pattern In decreasing pattern things decrease in size or number.

(a)

(b)        ABCD         ABC          AS      A

NUMBER PATTERNS

• Various patterns can be made by numbers.
• We can guess the next number in a pattern.

Examples:

Increasing Pattern:

In increasing pattern numbers increase in a certain manner, for example.

In the above example numbers are increasing by two.

Historical Preview

Geometric patterns were the great source of decoration in Islamic art which include calligraphy and vegetal patterns.

Decreasing Pattern:

In decreasing pattern numbers decrease in a certain manner, for example.

In the above example numbers are decreasing by one.

Repeating Pattern:

In repeating pattern numbers are repeated in a certain manner, for example.

In the above example 1 and 2 are appearing one by one.

SHAPE PATTERNS

• We can make a pattern with shapes.
• In shape pattern shapes are repeated in a particular manner.

Examples:

Patterns given above are based on repetition of shapes.

Turning Shapes

A shape can be turned up, down, left, right again and again. We can see turning shape patterns in art and fabrics.

Examples:

TILES PATTERNS

The tiles which cover the floor of your house creates a pattern. The method of putting the tiles together without gaps is called tessellation.

Examples:

Amazing Facts

• Patterns are found in the natural world.
• Natural patterns include trees, waves, symmetries and stripes.

We can see beautiful patterns on the skin of various animals, like Tiger, Zebra, Leopard etc.

THUMB PATTERNS

Patterns which are made with the help of thumb and fingers are called thumb patterns.

Examples:

VEGETABLE AND FRUIT PATTERNS

Patterns which are created with the help of vegetables and fruits, are called vegetable and fruit patterns.

Examples:

Real Life Examples

• We can see different types of patterns on the curtain, bed sheet, floor and bag.
• We can see patterns in buildings, monuments and so on.

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