2nd Class Mathematics Spatial understandings Shapes and Spatial Understanding

Shapes and Spatial Understanding

Category : 2nd Class


This lesson will help you to:—

  • identify 2-Dimensional (2-D) shapes.
  • study the properties of 2-D shapes.
  • identify some of the 3-D shapes.
  • distinguish between straight and curved lines.




When we look around, we find objects of different shapes. Some objects you also carry in your school bags. For example: pencil, pen lunch box, ruler etc.


Do you know their shapes?

Let us discuss some of these shapes in detail.

1. You all must have played LUDO with your friends. Do you know shape of its dice?

Dice is having shape of a cube.

2. Match box, that we use for lighting fire has a shape of a cuboid.

3. Cold drink cans have shape of a cylinder.

4. Ice-cream cones are having shape of a cone.

5. Football has a shape of a sphere.

The shapes we have discussed above are 3-Dimensional shapes. These are also known as solid shapes. Flat shapes like circle, triangle, square and rectangle are also called 2 - Dimensional shapes. Now, observe how we can make 2-D (2-Dimensional) shapes from 3-D (3-Dimensional) shapes by simply using pencil. Whichever shapes you want to draw, put it on the paper and draw its lower bottom. The shapes thus formed are 2-D (2-Dimensional) shapes.

Let us understand with the help of examples given below.








A Rectangle has four sides. Two opposite?s sides are equal and all the four angles are also equal.



A Square has four sides. All the sides are equal Four angles are also equal.  



It has sides and three and angles. Sides and angles can be different or equal.



It has no sides and it is round in shape.



When we move a pencil along one of the edges of a scale we get aLINE.  


1. Straight Line

If you stretch a thread tightly, you get a straight line squares, rectangles and triangles are made of straight lines.

Horizontal, Vertical and Slanting lines

Look at door of your classroom. Along the floor, we see a line. It is called horizontal or sleeping line. The lines along the wall are vertical lines.

The lines that are neither vertical nor horizontal are called slanting lines.

We can draw a slanted line by placing a ruler on the paper.



2. Curved line

The curved line is drawn without the use of a ruler. It is not a straight line. If you hold the thread loosely, you get a curved line.

Examples of curved lines

Circles and ovals are made curved lines.



An angle is formed by joining two lines.


Amazing Fact

  • Squircle is a type of shape which is essentially a combination of a circle and a square having properties of a both, Lately, Squircles have found widespread use in modern car designs.


Real Life Examples

We can find a lot of example of solid shapes in our surroundings.

For example

  • Coins are circular in shape and books that we read are cuboid in shape.
  • The bricks that are used for making houses are cuboid in shape, the ball with which we play is a sphere.


Historical preview

The invention of a wheel (a circle shape) was one of the most important inventions in human history.

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