3rd Class Mathematics Fractions Fractions


Category : 3rd Class


This lesson will help us to:-

  • Define fractions numerator and denominator.
  • Identify a fraction using object and shapes.
  • Understand equivalent fraction.
  • Compare fractions.
  • Add unit fractions with like denominators.



  • An hour is divided in fraction of hours. Half\[\left( \frac{1}{2} \right)\] and hour; quarter of an hour.

  • Sport like football, have half time in the game. Half time shows a break marking the completion of half of a game.




When a whole object or group is divided into equal parts, then each part is called a fraction of that whole.  


Suppose, there is an apple and you want to divide it equally among 2 friends then equal pieces of the apple form fractions.

A fraction is a part of a whole divided in equal parts.



  • A fraction is written in the form of \[\frac{N}{D};D\ne 0.\]Here N is called the numerator and D is called the denominator. For example; \[\frac{1}{3}\] means one part out of 3 equal parts.
  • When a whole is divided in 2 equal parts, then each part is called a half and is written as\[\frac{1}{2}\]


  • When a whole is divided in 4 equal parts, then each part is called quarter or one-fourth and is written as \[\frac{1}{4}\].


  • Fractions that appear differently but have the same value are called equivalent fractions. For example \[\frac{2}{4}\] ,\[\frac{1}{2}\]and\[\frac{3}{6}\].


  • In a fraction, multiply the numerator and denominator by the same number to get an equivalent fraction.

For example: \[\frac{1}{4}=\frac{1}{4}\times \frac{3}{3}=\frac{3}{12}\]

So, \[\frac{1}{4}\] and\[\frac{3}{12}\]are equivalent fractions.  


Let us now understand different kinds of fractions. Fractions can be divided into two categories:

  1. Like and unlike fractions.
  2. Proper and Improper fractions.

Like Fractions are those fractions which have the same denominators.

\[\frac{1}{9},\frac{2}{9},\frac{3}{9},\frac{5}{9},\frac{6}{9}\]Etc. is all like fractions

Unlike Fractions are those fractions which have different denominators.

\[\frac{1}{3},\frac{2}{13},\frac{4}{9},\frac{5}{8},\frac{6}{11}\] are all unlike fractions.

Proper Fractions are those fractions in which the numerator is less than the denominator.

\[\frac{1}{2},\frac{2}{3},\frac{4}{5},\frac{6}{7},\frac{8}{9},\frac{9}{11}\]are all proper fractions.

Improper Fractions are those fractions in which the numerator is greater than the denominator,

\[\frac{3}{2},\frac{8}{5},\frac{7}{4},\frac{12}{10}\] are improper fractions.



Take paper cut outs of basic shapes like circle, square and rectangle. Now fold the paper to get equal parts. It's time to cooer. Color half quarter, one third of different shapes



  • The egyptions were one of the first groups to study fractions. It evolved from problems like division of food as there was no money to make payment.
  • The arabs introduced the fractional bar in the 12th century




  • The word fraction is originated from a Latin word fraction, which means broken.
  • Roalas sleeps for \[\frac{{{3}^{\text{th}}}}{4}\]of the day.
  • Our body is composed of an average of \[\frac{{{3}^{\text{th}}}}{5}\]part of water.



Misconcept: The bigger the number on the bottom the bigger the fraction.

Concept: The number is the bottom tells us the number of parts whole is divided into.

Misconcept: Half means dividing one whole into 2 Pieces

Concept: Half means dividing a whole in 2 equal parts.

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