4th Class Science Animals Animal Life

Animal Life

Category : 4th Class

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

This lesson will help you to:

  • Understand classification of animals.
  • Learn about movement of animals.
  • Understand different features of animals like skin, ear, hair etc.
  • Brainstorm about the various uses of animals for human beings.
  • Know about the animals being used as means of transportation.
  • Correlate animal and human life.
  • Sensitise towards the cruelty of humans towards animals.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS

MAMMALS

REPTILES

 
  • Give birth to‘live young’ ones.
  • Have hair or fur
  • Mother nurse their young warm-blooded
 
  • Have scales, not fur
  • They have dry skin
  • Usually lay eggs, sometimes lives young ones
  • Cold-blooded

 

AMPHIBIANS

BIRDS

FISH

 
  • Live on land and in water.
  • Cold-blooded.
  • Moist skin
  • Webbed feet
 
  • Have feathers & wings
  • Lay eggs
  • Warm-blooded

 

 
  • Breathe under water using gills.
  • Have scales and fins.
  • Cold-blooded.
  • Lay eggs.

 

LET’S UNDERSTAND DIFFERENT FEATURES OF ANIMALS

The animal kingdom is comprised of millions of profoundly diverse creatures. Though all these animals have the same types of organs and body parts, they appear very different from each other.

Ear: Consider animal ears, for example. The ears of animals can be very large or very small. Some do not have ears at all. When present they may be of different shapes and sizes.                                    

Mammals are the only animals that have visible outer ears. Like dog, cow, elephant, deer etc. Dogs have highly sensitized ears which are helpful when they work with police in detective work. Bats use their ears to locate things. They make loud cries that are too high pitched for the human ear to hear. Sound waves from these cries bounce off the surrounding objects and echo back. This is how the bat knows the location of everything around it. Many birds, reptiles and fish do not have visible outer ears, but that does not mean that these animals cannot hear, they only have inner ears. Snakes do not have ears. You may wonder how do they dance on the snake charmer's tunes? They actually hear through vibrations on the ground.

Fish have inner ears, but generally have poor hearing. Also, though whales and dolphins are mammals, they do not have outer ears, but rather have structures similar to birds and reptiles.

Insects and worms do not have outer or inner ears, but rather have other organs for hearing called tympanal organs, that are located in their abdomens and exoskeletons. Many insects have very sensitive hearing.

Worms do not have ears and cannot hear at all. They have other organs that can sense vibrations in the ground.

Skin: All animals are affected by their environment and require some type of outer protective layer. Animals may have hair, scales, fur, or feathers on their skin.

 

Functions of skin in different animals

Fur, hair, or bristles cover most mammals. Some mammals, such as elephants, have very little hair while some have lot like cat or sheep. Sheep's fur is used to make wool. Porcupines and hedgehogs have needle like spikes on their bodies instead of hair.

The function of a frog's skin is to regulate the transfer of moisture and fluids.                             

Scales cover the bodies of most snakes, lizards, and bony fishes and generally vary in size, shape, and arrangement. Fish scale serves mainly as a protection against physical harm.

 

Amazing Fact

The shape of the outer ear can enhance its functionality; for example, hares have long ears to increase their range of hearing to avoid predators. The arctic fox and the polar bear which are found at very cold places, have small ears so that it loose less body heat. For some animals, ears are important for more than hearing, as is the case with elephants; their large ears have many blood vessels that regulate body temperature.

 

Sponges, are primitive, simple animals that do not require hearing, smell, or taste and therefore lack those sense organs

 

In birds, light weight and special shape of the feathers help them fly.

In colder regions many birds and mammals develop a special coat on their body which is very thick and white and protects them from cold. They shed that coat during the summer season. In very hot areas animals have less hair to let their skin breathe easily, beer, zebras, giraffes, tigers etc have very short hair on their skins. Camels, that live in hot desert, have thick skin with very little hair. Quite often, an animal’s skin hair or fur may match the colour of their surroundings. This helps the animal to blend with the surrounding and protects them from the predators. This is called camouflage. Most animals in the desert area are sand-coloured, while in the snowy areas they are white in colour.

Patterns-Different animals have different patterns on their body not only to look beautiful but also to protect themselves from surrounding. These are natural adaptations of wild animals to camouflage with the environment and protect from the predator.

 

LET’S SEE SOME INTERESTING PATTERNS ON ANIMALS

1. ZEBRA            

2. LEOPARD              

3. DEER                    

4. SQUIRREL               

 

A SNAPHOT

HOW ANIMALS ARE USEFUL TO HUMANS

1. We need animals for food: We drink milk that we get from cows, buffaloes, goats and even camels. Milk is a very important food for the growth of children. We get cheese, curd, butter and ghee from milk. Eggs and meat are a good source of protein. We eat the eggs of hens and ducks. The meat of goats, sheep, chicken and fish is commonly eaten. The honey that we eat is extracted from the hives of the honeybees. People who collect honey, cover their hands, face and body so that they are not bitten by the bees. In order to collect honey, they put the beehive on fire. When the fire drives away the bees, the hive is removed and the honey is extracted.

 

2. We need animals for materials: Wool is made from the hair of sheep. It is used for making blankets, sweaters, clothing, carpets, etc. Shoes, bags and belts are usually made from leather that we get from the skin of cows camels and buffaloes. We get silk from the silkworm. It is used for making sarees,   shawls, carpets and furnishings. Shells, feathers and teeth of animals are also used for making jewellery, decorative items, dusters, etc.

 

3. We need animals for certain services: Animals are often used for lifting and carrying heavy loads. Horses and camels are used for transportation in hills and deserts. Dogs are kept as pets and for guarding the house. They have a good sense of smell and are used by the police for detective work.

 

MOVEMENTS OF ANIMALS

Every individual has a certain number of members in his her family. These members form the group that we live in. Similarly animals also live in groups. These groups are called herds, flocks etc.

Some animals live in groups whereas some prefer to live alone. To avoid competition for food, some animals need to stay alone to avoid sharing the same food resources. For example, a giant panda needs to eat a lot of bamboo shoots at one time. Therefore this animal needs to live alone to avoid competition for limited food. Some animals who prefer to live alone are tiger, leopard, spiders, foxes, polar bear etc.

 

Some animals prefer to live in groups because it gives them protection from predators, division of labour is possible or cooperative food collection is there, it ensures easy availability of mate and it becomes easy to raise their young ones. Some animals who prefer to live in groups are ants, elephant, horses, camels, lions etc. Some animals are friendly while others are shy. For example tortoise and hedgehog are shy animals. If we touch a tortoise it withdraws its neck into its shell and when we touch a hedgehog it curls up into a spiny ball whereas animals like dogs and cats are friendly animals and make ideal pets. Monkey's, cows, tame elephants, hens, turkeys, ducks geese, pigeons, sparrow are also friendly.

Insects Visiting Flowers: Insects such as bees and butterflies, and even some birds visit flowers. They come to the flowers for nectar which make sweet food for them. The colour, shape and smell of flowers help to attract insects.

 

Name of Animal

Animal Group

Ant

Colony

Camel

Flock

Elephant

Herd/Parade

Horses

Team

Lions

Pride

 

ADAPTATION OF ANIMALS

When the weather is too cold and the food is in short supply, some animals go into the burrows and sleep for long time. This is called Hibernation.

Animals in the desert go for a long summer sleep, as the summer is hot and with very little water and food. This summer sleep is called Aestivation.

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