4th Class Science Good Habits, Safety and First Aid Safety and First Aid

Safety and First Aid

Category : 4th Class

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

This lesson will help you to:

  • learn about first aid and its requirement.
  • understand how one should react during emergency.
  • know about the precautions which should be taken to avoid accidents.


  

QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW

Have you heard of houses being damaged by floods, earthquakes, cyclones, fires, storms, lightening?

Natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, cyclones, fires, storms, lightening damage both life and property. Many people die in these disasters; lose their homes, fields, family, friends, relatives and animals etc.

Manmade disasters like road accidents or some accidents which happen by chance like fire, wounds, insect bites are also very harmful or may even lead to death.

In case of major calamities like earthquakes, floods etc. some people take an initiative to help people without their own benefit. They are called volunteers.

Some organisations-both government and non-govern-ment help in such cases.

We should always inform ambulance, police and fire brigades to help in such situations according to the need.

What can you do to help others in such cases before the doctor arrives?

When such calamity or an accident occurs, it may take some time for the doctor to reach or to take the wounded person to a hospital. In such a case, the immediate help given to the wounded person on the spot is called emergency care or first aid. It also refers to the immediate and temporary help given to patient in case of sudden illness before the medical expertise can be taken. So, it is very important to learn first aid techniques to help ourselves as well as others in case of emergencies.

What is the major objective of first aid?

First aid is given not to cure but prevent the condition of the patient from becoming worse.

 

For this, you will need a first aid Kit.

A first aid kit is a kit containing important articles like bandage, cotton wool, dettol, burnol, etc. which are needed to help people in case of emergency.

 

Amazing Facts

  • If the fire occurs due to short circuit of any electrical fault, never use water. Throw sand over it or use fire extinguisher.
  • Can you think, why?
  • This is so because water is a good conductor of electricity and you too may get an electrical shock.

 

MAKING YOUR OWN FIRST AID KIT

You will need:

A rectangular plastic box and cover it with white sheet of paper. If you don't have it, you can take a clean shoe box and cover it with white paper.

There are some important things you will need to keep in that box like-

  • Thermometer
  • Hot water bottle
  • Ice bag
  • A pair of scissors
  • Adhesive bandages
  • Gauze bandage
  • Cotton
  • Antiseptic ointments and creams (for aches, cuts and burns)
  • Medicines (like Anti-vomiting tablets, antacid tablets tincture of iodine)
  • You should also keep the emergency numbers like of the local hospital, family doctor, local police station, fire department on the lid of the box.

 

Do not forget to draw the Red Cross so it can be easily recognized.

Some general Tips

  • Do keep a first aid kit ready and handy for emergencies.
  • Fix a list of important phone number like of the family doctor, nearest hospital police station along with it.
  • When an emergency situation occurs, do not panic or lose your cool.
  • Never step back to help people in need.

 

Different types of wounds and accidents require different types of first aid. Let's have a look at them one by one.

 

First Aid for Cuts and Wounds

What will you do if you found someone cut or wound himself/herself?

First of all, wash your hands before giving first aid. Now, you should soak the cotton in an antiseptic solution and clean the cut/wound with it.

If the cut/wound is small, you can simply cover it with a band-aid.

If the cut/wound is bigger, apply an antiseptic cream (ointment) over it. Then, place a cotton pad on it and wrap up the injured area with a bandage. Do take care that the bandage is neither too tight nor too loose.

In case of bleeding, press the wound with a sterilized, cotton pad. When the bleeding stops, apply antiseptic cream (ointment), then cover it with cotton pad and bandage.

In case of heavy bleeding, tie a handkerchief above the wound, to stop the bleeding.

In heavy bleeding, do not give the patient any food. Give only a little water or a piece of ice to suck if the patient feels thirsty.

Also, take the patient to the nearby hospital for further medical aid and consult a doctor for the same.

 

FIRST AID FOR BURNS

Minor burns and home remedies

In case of minor burns, pour plenty of cold water immediately over it. This prevents the heat from going deeper and forming blisters. Further, apply an anti-burn ointment.

There are several home remedies to apply on burn like

  • Baking soda mixed with water.
  • A paste of turmeric and milk.

You can also apply coconut oil mixed with neel (INDIGO) (used to wash white clothes) to prevent the formation of burn scars.

 

 

MAJOR BURN INJURIES

If the clothes of a person catch fire, cover the patient with a blanket and roll them over to stop the fire. Make the person lie in the open and do not crowd around. Give them plenty of water to drink. Remove the burnt clothes not sticking to the body. Immediately, apply anti-burn ointment all over the burns. After that, cover the patient with clean cloth and rush the patient to the nearest hospital.

 

 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER

The fire extinguisher works by cutting the supply of oxygen. Oxygen is needed for anything to burn. So, if the supply of oxygen is cut off, the fire gets extinguished. For this, these cylinders contain carbon dioxide in the form of liquid. These cylinders are commonly known as fire extinguishers.

 

 

FIRST AID FOR BLEEDING NOSE

You may have sometimes observed nose bleeding suddenly in extreme summers or injury.

How can you help if you find someone suffer from this?

For this, you should press the bleeding side of the nose hard at the points shown in the picture and held the head of the patient back. Make the patient breathe through the mouth and put a wet towel on the patient's head in order to stop bleeding. Always consult a doctor if bleeding persists.

 

 

FIRST AID FOR INSECT BITE

In case of an insect bite, like wasp or honey bee, the first step is to remove the sting. Apply lime water or ammonia on the bite. Follow with a paste of baking soda and cream. Put some ice on the bite in order to reduce swelling

 

 

FIRST AID FOR DOG BITE

If somebody is bitten by dog, clean the wound thoroughly first with soapy water and then with an antiseptic. If this is not followed, the patient may suffer from rabies. After that, cover the wound with a bandage and take the patient to the doctor immediately.

 

FIRST AID FOR SPRAIN

  • Sprain refers to the great pain and swelling one may experience while twisting of hands or legs.
  • In such case you should cool the injured part with ice cubes. This will reduce both pain and swelling.
  • Wrap an elastic crepe bandage as shown in the picture around the effected part. This will reduce movement and pain.
  • Give the patient some pain relieving tablets.
  • Another option is to give the patient a glass of warm milk with a little turmeric mixed in it for faster healing.
  • In severe cases, rush to the doctor.

 

 

FIRST AID FOR FRACTURE

Breaking or cracking of a bone in our body is called a fracture. It can be identified by severe pain, swelling and the patient is unable to move that part of the body. Do not move the injured part of the patient. In case of a broken arm, use a sling to support the injured part. In case of a broken leg, make the patient lie down, and use a piece of cardboard or magazine as a splint, in order to prevent further dislocation of the bone.

In such case, the patient requires immediate medical attention.

An orthopedic doctor looks after bone injuries.

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