Category : 4th Class
This lesson will help you to:—
Real Life Examples
QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW
Parts of plants and their functions
1. Shoots: The part of the plant which grows upwards, above the ground forms the shoot. The shoot grows from a seed or from the main stem of a plant.
2. Roots: The part which grows underground forms the root. Roots hold the plant firmly in the ground.
3. Stems: The main support of the plant, above the ground is called the stem. Along the stem there can be branches, leaves and buds. The water and salts absorbed by the roots travel up the stem and into the leaves. The food is carried by the stem to all parts of the plant. In some plants, such as sugarcane extra food is stored in the stem. Potato and ginger are underground stems. We eat these stems. Stems come in many varieties.
1. Some stems are thick, strong and woody and are covered in bark.
Example: Stem of the neem tree.
2. Some stems are thick but they are soft.
Example: Stem of banana plant.
3. Some stems are weak. They climb with the help of a support.
Example: Stem of grapevine.
4. Leaves: Plants make their food in the leaves. If you look carefully at a leaf you will see some veins on its flat part. The veins bring water and salts to the leaves from the roots.
5. Flowers: Flowers are of various colors and smell sweet. We use flowers to make garlands, to put into vases and for decoration during festivals. Flowers help plants to reproduce. In order for a flower to produce fruits and seeds, the pollen from one flower has to be carried to another flower. Pollen is a fine yellow dust. It is carried by the wind, water or by small insects such as bees.
6. Fruits and Seeds: Fruits are formed from flowers. Fruits contain seeds. First, a tiny bud appears on the stem of a plant. The bud grows into a flower. Later on, the flower grows into a fruit. When a fruit is broken open or dries up, its seeds may fall into the soil near the plant. Some seeds have wings and are carried by the wind to places far away from the plant. Some seeds get carried by the water animals to faraway places. Some seeds are collected by people and planted in the soil. Seeds usually have a hard covering. Inside each seed there is a baby plant. When a seed is put into soil and provided with enough water, sunlight and air, it can grow into a new plant. This new plant later on produces more seeds. This is known as a life cycle.
IN THIS CHAPTER WE WILL FOCUS ON ROOTS AND FLOWERS
The root performs many functions primary of which are:
There are two main types of roots.
1. Top root is long and sturdy: When a long main root grows from the end of the stem and many small side roots grow from the main root, it is called a tap root E.g. mango, bean, etc. Thinner roots grow out of the tap root.
These roots are further divided into primary root secondary root and tertiary root.
2. Fibrous roots are made up of large number of equal-sized roots. It is formed when a number of roots grow from the end of the stem.
Example: Roots of onion, grass and wheat plants.
EXAMPLES OF TAP ROOT WE EAT
The Amazing Banyan Roots! (Aerial roots)
The banyan accomplishes its major growth and animated forms through its amazing and unique root system. Like most trees, banyans also have roots that live underground. Yet unlike most trees banyans have roots that begin their life above ground. These roots grow downwards from branches towards the ground. These ore called aerial roots. Roots of Mangroves: Mangrove trees grow in marshy, areas that have clayey soil. This soil holds a lot of water and very little air. Thus these trees produce roots that grows above the water and help the plant in breathing, besides holding the plant in place.
Misconcept: The roots of plants absorb water from the soil and have no other important functions.
Concept: The roots also help some plants to climb, e.g. cucumber. Some roots are used to support the plants e.g. Banyan. Some roots store food and water, e.g. carrot.
Flowers are found in wide varieties of colors like red, orange, yellow, white, violet etc. Rose, Jasmine, Marigold, Sunflower all are flowers. Flower is very important part of the plant. It changes into fruits that contain seed in it. When the seeds get proper condition of air, sunlight and moisture, germinates into a new plant.
THE PARTS OF A FLOWER
FLOWERS IN EVERYDAY LIFE: Some flowers grow on trees like Magnolia, Dogwood, Cherry blossoms. Some flowers grow on bushes like Rose, Fuchsia, Buddlia, and Camellia.
Some flowers grow on creepers like Bougainvillea.
Some flowers grow in water like Water lilies, Lotus, Pondweed etc.
Some flowers bloom only at night like Night Gladiolus, Moon flowers. Evening primrose.
Some flowers bloom only in day and close at night like Morning glory.
Some flowers grow only in summers like Sunflower, Balsam. Jasmine, Chinese honeysuckle (Madhumaiti).
Some flowers grow only in winters like Oahlia. Carnation, Marigold, Rose,
Some flowers grow in the wild like Floss flower, Wild primula.
Some flowers are domesticated like Rose, Tulips.
FLOWERS ARE USED IN MANY WAYS
Floral Motifs: Motifs is a design or a pattern on a cloth, wood, metal, marble or pottery. Floral designs make beautiful motifs. You must have seen floral designs on bed covers, cushion covers, curtains, and clothes on tiles.
Buying Flowers: The person who sells flowers is called a florist. Most of the towns have a whole sale market of flowers called "Fool Mandi". The florists buys flowers from the mandi and sells them to us. We can buy a single flower, a bunch of flowers, a bouquet, a garland or can also buy loose petals for rangoli.
Whom do trees belong to:
Trees and plants belong to each one of us. They are an important part of our environment. They give us flowers, fruits, grains, vegetables and also purify our air. They provide shelter and shade to many birds and animals.
Trees are such an important resource for us hence we should not cut trees. The forest department officials are responsible to present the cutting of trees. The government has made strict rules against cutting of trees.
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