8th Class English Clauses Kinds of Subordinate Clauses

Kinds of Subordinate Clauses

Category : 8th Class

*   Kinds of Subordinate Clauses

 

There are three kinds of Subordinate Clauses:

1.       Noun Clause

2.       Adjective Clause

3.       Adverb Clause

 

*     Noun Clause

 

A clause which acts as a noun or which is used in place of a noun is called a Noun Clause.

To identify the Noun Clause, a question is formed by adding 'what' to the main verb and the clause in which we get its answer is the Noun Clause.

  •   She told me that she was not keeping well.
  •   What did she tell you a question 'that she was not keeping well' is an answer which is a Noun Clause.

 

Noun Clauses are used in various forms

 

*    Subject to a Verb

 

If any clause comes in place of the subject of a verb then that Noun Clause is a Subject to the verb.

  •   When she will return is not sure.

In the above given sentence, '(it) is not sure' is the Principal Clause, and *when she' will return' is a subject Noun Clause, subject to the verb 'is'

 

*     Object to a Verb

 

If any clause in a sentence takes the place of an object of a Finite Verb, then that

Noun Clause is called an object to the verb.

  •   Do you know when the teacher will come?

In the above given sentence, 'Do you know' is the Principal Clauses; 'when the teacher will come' is a subject. Noun Clause, object to the verb 'know'.

 

*     Object to an Infinite

 

If in a sentence, a clause begins after the infinite and which acts as an object, then that Noun Clause is an object to the infinite.

  •   Steve wants to say that he is not to blame.

In the above given sentence, 'Steve wants to say' is the Principal Clause, and 'that he is not blame' is a Sub. Noun Clause, object to the infinitive 'to say'.

 

*     Object to a Preposition

 

If any Clause which comes after the preposition in the form of an object, then that

Noun Clause is an object to the preposition.

  •   Her future depends on how she plans it now.

In this sentence, 'Her future depends on' is the Principal Clause, and 'how she plans it now' is a Sub. Noun Clause, object to the preposition 'on'.

 

*     Object to a Participle

 

If any clause comes after any participle and acts as an object, then that Noun

Clause is an object to the participle.

  •   Hoping that my friend would be in the house, I went there.

In the above given sentence, 'l went there, hoping' is the Principle Clause, and 'that my friend would be in the house' is a Sub. Noun Clause, object to the participle 'hoping'.

It is important to note that if the participle is used before the sub. Clause, then while analyzing, the participle is put at the end of the Principal Clause.

 

*      Complement to an Incomplete Verb

 

If at the end of a Principal Clause there is any helping verb, then the Noun Clause coming after it is called a complement to an incomplete verb as this clause is used to complete the sense of a sentence.

  •   He is what he has made himself.

In the above given sentence, 'He is' is the Principal Clause; ' what he has made himself Sub. Noun Clause Complement to the incomplete verb 'is'.

 

*    In Apposition to a Noun or a Pronoun

 

If any clause is used to clear the meaning of any noun or pronoun, then that Noun

Clause is called 'in apposition to the noun or pronoun'.

  •   It is strange that he should behave in such a manner.

In the above given sentence, 'lt is strange' is the Principal Clause and 'that he should behave in such a manner' is a Sub. Noun clause in apposition to the pronoun

 

*      Adjective Clause

 

In a sentence, an Adjective Clause acts as an adjective, that is, it describes a noun or a pronoun of any other clause.

  •   These start with Relative Pronouns like who, whose, whom, that, which or as.
  •   These also start with Relative Adverbs like when, where, why, how.

Adjective Clauses are used before nouns or pronouns beginning with who, whose, whom, that, which; for time we use 'when' for place; 'where' for reason or cause 'why' for manner or way 'how'; for such + noun 'as'.

1.       This is the man who has smashed the windowpane.

In this sentence, 'This is the man' is the Principal Clause; 'who has smashed the window pane' is a Sub. Adjective Clause, qualifying the noun 'man'.

2.       This is the place where I first met my wife.

In the above given sentence, 'This is the place' is the Principal Clause and 'where I first met my Wife' is a Sub. Adjective Clause, qualifying the noun 'place'.

3.       Sometime, a part of the Prindpal Clause comes before the Sub. Clause and the rest after it.

  •   The girl who came here today is my classmate.

In this sentence, This girl is my classmate' is the Principal Clause, whereas 'came here today' is a Sub. Adjective Clause, qualifying the noun 'girl'.

 

 

*      Adverb Clause

 

Adverb Clause is that Subordinate Clause which modifies the verb, adjective or adverb coming in any other clause. It informs about the following things:

(i) Time                                (ii) Place

(iii) Purpose                     (iv) Reason or Cause

(v) Manner                       (vi) Extent

(vii) Condition               (viii) Result

(ix) Comparison           (x) Contrast

 

(A) Adverb Clause of Time

 

It indicates the time and normally begins with any of these subordinating Conjunctions like when, whenever, after, before, till, until, since, while, as, as soon as, as long as, so long as, etc.

  •   I eat my food after I have served my parents.

In this sentence, 'l eat my food' is the Principal Clause and 'after I have served my parents' is a sub. Adverb Clause showing Time'.

  •   As soon as the thief saw the policeman, he ran away.

In this sentence, 'he ran away' is the Principal Clause and 'As soon as the thief saw the policeman' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing Time',

 

(B) Adverb Clause of Place

 

As it suggests, it points to the place and normally starts with the Subordinating

Conjunction like wherever, where, whether, whence, etc.

Example: He shall go where his mother goes.

In the above given sentence, 'He shall go' is the Principle clause and 'where his mother goes' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Place'.

Example : She will follow you wherever you go.

In this sentence, 'She will follow you' is the Principle Clause and 'wherever you go' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Place'.

 

(C) Adverb Clause of Purpose

 

It expresses purpose. It begins with: in order that, so that, lest, etc. which are Subordinating Conjunctions.

Example : We work hard so that we may succeed.

In the above given sentence, 'We work hard' is the Principle Clause and 'so that we may succeed' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Purpose'.

Example : Use the knife carefully lest you should cut your fingers.

In this sentence, 'Use the knife carefully' is the Principle Clause and 'lest you should cut your fingers' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Purpose'.

 

(D) Adverb Clause of Reason

 

This clause always tells the reason of any event. It starts with any of these

Subordinating Conjunctions like because, since, as, that, now, etc.

Example: This task cannot be accomplished as it is difficult.

In the above given sentence, 'This task cannot be accomplished' is the Principle Clause and 'as it is difficult' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Reason'.

Example: I am happy because you have cleared your engineering examination.

In this sentence,' I am happy' is the Principle Clause and because you have cleared your 'engineering examination' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Reason'.

 

(E) Adverb Clause of Manner

 

This clause describes the manner and it usually begins with any of these Subordinating Conjunctions such as : as, as.... so, as if, as though, etc.

Example: He cried as if he were in deep pain.

In the above given sentence,' He cried' is the Principle' Clause and 'as if he were in deep pain' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Manner'.

 

(F) Adverb Clause of Condition

 

As the name suggests, this Clause points to a condition. This Clause begins with any of these Subordinating Conjunctions like if, unless, in case, whether ?? or, provided, etc.

Example : In case you are interested, you can come.

In the above given sentence, 'you can come' is the Principal Clause, whereas 'in case you are interested' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Condition'.

 

(G) Adverb Clause of Extent

 

This clause expresses the extent of the statement and generally begins with any of these Subordinating Conjunctions as far as, so far as, etc.

Example: As far as I think, he will not come today.

In the above given sentence, 'he will not come today' is the Principal Clause, whereas 'as far as' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Extent'.

 

 

(H) Adverb Clause of Result

 

This clause points out the outcome or result of what is being said and generally begins with 'that' but before this 'so' or 'such' is used in the Principal Clause.

Example: She is so tired that she cannot stand.

In the above given sentence, 'She is so tired' is the Principal Clause and 'that she cannot stand' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing 'Result'.

 

(I) Adverb Clause of Comparison

 

This clause tells us about the comparison between two qualities and generally begins with the Subordinating Conjunction 'than' as ? as; so?as.

Example: Lina is more beautiful than Serena.

In the above give sentence, 'Lina is more beautiful' is the Principal Clause whereas 'than Serena' is a Sub. Adverb Clause showing comparison.

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