8th Class English Conjunctions Types of Conjunctions

Types of Conjunctions

Category : 8th Class

*    Types of Conjunctions  

 

*       Coordinating Conjunction

 

A conjunction used to join two independent statements or two statements of equal rank or importance is called a coordinating conjunction. (e.g. and, but, for, yet, so, etc.)  

 

example.jpg

  •   The sun was shining and a hot wind was blowing.
  •   There was noise around me but I was not disturbed.

In the above given sentences, the words, 'and' and 'but' are coordinating conjunctions.  

 

*      Coordinating Conjunctions are of Four Types

(i) Conjunctions that merely add one statement or fact to another.        

And, both -- and, as well as, no less than, not only -- but also are common conjunctions of this type:  

And

  • The weather was fine and the sea was calm.

(The weather was fine. The sea was calm)

  • The door was open and my things were lying scattered.

(The door was open. My things were lying scattered)  

Both -- and

  • She is both intelligent and hard working.

(She is intelligent. She is hard working)

  • Kajol gave me both books and notes.

(Kajol gave books. Kajol gave me notes)  

As well as

  • He as well as his father is dishonest.

(He is dishonest. His father is dishonest.)

  • The captain as well as the crew was drowned.

(The captain was drowned. The crew was drowned.)                

No less than

  • He is guilty no less than his brother.

(His brother is guilty. He is equally guilty.)

  • I am no less grateful to your father than to you.

(I am grateful to you. I am equally grateful to your father.)  

Not only - but also

  • He was not only my relative but also a very close friend.

(He was my relative. He was my close friend.)

  • The train was not only late but also fully packed.

(The train was late. The train was fully packed.)

(ii) Conjunctions that express opposition or contrast between two statements.

But, still, yet, nevertheless, whereas, while, only are conjunctions of this type.  

But

  • The train was fully packed but we got seats easily.

(The train was fully packed. We got seats easily)

  • The earthquake was quite severe but the temple was not damaged.

(The earthquake was severe. The temple was not damaged.)  

Still, yet

  • Steve is quite rich, still he is not contented.
  • Steve is quite rich, yet he is not contented.

(Steve is quite rich. He is not contented)

  • I was angry, still I did not scold him.
  • I was angry, yet I did not scold him.  

Nevertheless

  • We were very tired; nevertheless, we continued the work.

(We were very tired. We continued the work)

  • I am hard up; nevertheless, I will give you some money.  

Whereas, while

  • Wise men prefer quality, whereas (or while) fools prefer quantity.

(Wise men prefer quality. Fools prefer quantity.)

  • Rice needs plenty of water to grow, whereas (or while) wheat needs comparatively less water.

(iii) Conjunctions that express a choice between two alternatives

or, otherwise, else, either - or, neither-- nor, are common conjunctions of this type.  

Or

  • You must apologise, or you will be expelled from the school.

(You must apologise. You will be expelled from the school.)

  • You must be bold, or you will not be able to face the world.

(You must be bold, or you will not be able to face the world.)  

Either -- or

  • Either attend to your lesson or leave the class.

(Attend to your lesson. Leave the class.)

  • We can either walk down or take a bus.

(We can walk down. We can take a bus.)  

Neither -- nor

  • He is neither lazy nor careless.

(He is not lazy. He is not careless.)

  • Kaushik neither looks after the house nor takes up a job.

(Kaushik does not look after the house. Kaushik does not take up a job.)  

Otherwise, else

  • Hurryup, otherwise you will be late for the school.
  • Hurryup, else you will be late for the school.

(Hurry up. You will be late for the school)

(iv) Conjunction by which one statement or fact is inferred from another.

For, so, therefore are common conjunctions of this type.  

For

  • She will rise in life, for she is sincere and hardworking.
  • Let me take leave of you, for I am getting late.  

So, therefore

  • He did not report in time, so he was not selected.
  • He did not report in time, therefore he was not selected.
  • We missed the bus, so we took a taxi.
  • We missed the bus, therefore we took a taxi.  

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