JEE Main & Advanced Chemistry Carboxylic Acids Classification


Category : JEE Main & Advanced

(1) Carboxylic acids are classified as monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, tricarboxylic acids etc. depending on the number of \[COOH\] groups present in the molecule.


\[\underset{\text{Monocarboxylic acid}}{\mathop{\underset{\underset{\underset{\underset{{}}{\mathop{{}}}\,}{\mathop{{}}}\,}{\mathop{{}}}\,}{\mathop{C{{H}_{3}}COOH}}\,}}\,\ \ \ \ \ \ \underset{\underset{\text{Dicarboxylic acid}}{\mathop{{}}}\,}{\mathop{\underset{\underset{{}}{\mathop{{}}}\,}{\mathop{\underset{C{{H}_{2}}COOH}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,{{H}_{2}}COOH}}\,}}\,}}\,\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \underset{\text{Tricarboxylic acid}}{\mathop{\underset{{}}{\mathop{\underset{C{{H}_{2}}COOH\,}{\mathop{\underset{\underset{\,|}{\mathop{C}}\,HCOOH\,\,\,}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,{{H}_{2}}COOH}}\,}}\,}}\,}}\,\]


(2) Monocarboxylic acids of aliphatic series are commonly known as fatty acids such as palmitic acid \[({{C}_{15}}{{H}_{31}}COOH)\] and stearic acid \[\left( {{C}_{17}}{{H}_{35}}COOH \right)\].


(3) The general formula for monocarboxylic acids is \[{{C}_{n}}{{H}_{2n+1}}COOH\,\,\text{or}\,\,{{C}_{n}}{{H}_{2n}}{{O}_{2}}\]. Where n = number of carbon atoms.


(4) The carboxylic acids may be aliphatic or aromatic depending upon whether – COOH group is attached to aliphatic alkyl chain or aryl group respectively.



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