Voice and Narration
is that type of verb which clears that subject does work or work is done for
In active voice the subject does work.
Let us look at some examples:
1.Gopal loves Sita.
2.Ramesh is playing hockey
3.Raju has eaten my meal.
4.I took tea yesterday
5.The dog was eating the bone.
6.Mother had called me.
7.I shall pluck many flowers.
8.She will have cleaned the floor.
The above given example show that all the subject like
Gopal, Ramesh, Raju are doing their work. So it is called active voice.
In passive voice work is done for subject.
Let us look at some examples:
1.Sita is loved by Gopal.
2.Hockey is being played by him.
3.The meal has been eaten by Raju.
4.Tea was taken by me yesterday.
5.The bone was being eaten by the dog.
6.I had been called by mother.
7.Many flowers will be plucked by me.
8.The floor will have been cleaned by her.
In these sentences, it shows that work is done for all
Now there is a rule for changing active to passive voice.
Rule for active voice:
Subject + verb + object
Rule for passive voice:
Object + verb + by + subject
To change active to passive:
Firstly, convert object to subject.
Tenses tell us about past, present and future.
Let us look at some examples to recognise the tenses.
1.Gopal loved Sita.
2.Rama was jumping in the garden.
3.We had gone to the market yesterday.
4.I had been painting the wall for two hours.
In these sentences, second form of verb, was, had etc.,
shows the past tense.
To recognise the past tense, we have to see the helping
verb in the sentence as underlined in the above sentences.
1.Gopal loves Sita.
2.Rama is jumping in the garden.
3.They are playing.
4.We have gone to the hospital.
5.She has gone to the market.
6.I have been painting the wall for two hours.
1.Gopal will love Sita.
2.Rama will be jumping in the garden.
3.I shall be playing in the garden.
4.We shall have gone to the market.
5.She will have gone to the hospital.
6.I shall have been painting the walls for two months.
In the above examples you recognise the tense by
recognising the underlined helping verbs related to concerned tenses.
Conjunctions are words which join two sentences or two
words. Actually, you can say the conjunctive words act as a bridge in between two
sentences or words or numbers.
1.Entire world is made up of tiny particles and we are the part of
2.Two boys and three girls make five people.
3.To say anything is easy but its implementation is hard.
4.Do or die.
So, you can define conjunction as
The words which join two sentences or words or number.
The words, 'and, but, or' are the conjunctive words.
But you must give attention that conjunction must be
carefully distinguished from the relative pronouns, relative adverbs and
prepositions which are connecting words.
1.This is the building that the contractor built.
2.This is the house where Ram lived.
3.Go there and get the packet.
These three sentences use relative pronouns, relative
adverbs and conjunctions. In the first sentence ?that? is the relative pronoun
which joins both the parts of the sentence. In the second sentence relative
adverb 'where' modifies the verb and joins the two parts of the sentence. In
the third sentence ?and? is the conjunction which joins the two parts of the
Actually the conjunction merely joins the two sentences while
in case of relative pronouns, and relative adverb etc., they do more.
Some other words used as conjunctions
1.Either - or
? Either go away or sit down.
2.Neither - nor
? Neither win nor lose.
3.Both - and
? We both lay on bed and sleep.
4.Though - yet
? Though he was feeling bad yet he never expressed.
5.Whether - or
? I do not bother whether he stays or
6.Not only - but also
? Not only men but also women can join
Classification of Conjunction
There are two types of conjunction
Those conjunctions which join two statements of equal
rank. For example:
? Earth is moving around the Sun and Moon is moving around
Types of coordinating conjunction
(a) Cumulative or Copulative
It merely adds one statement to another. For example:
? We carved not a line and we raised
not a stone.
preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation of
a person of a thing with something else. For example: in, of, off, etc.
is a cow in the field.
shows the relation between the cow and the field.
Which shows simply the relation of a person or thing with
something else. For example: at, by, from
It is generally formed by prefixing a preposition to a
noun, an adjective or an adverb. For example: about, behind, underneath
They are the groups of words used as a single preposition.
For example: in accordance with, in place of
The words which are similar to present participles of
verbs are sometimes used as prepositions, they are called participle
prepositions. For example: barring, concerning, etc.
Concering (= about) yesterday?s fire, there are many
rumours in the bazar.
Went around the world.
Ran across the road.
After his death.
In the afternoon.
Cut it with a knife.
He was stunned by a blow.
Died from fatigue.
Took medicine for cold.
There was no money on him.
A man of means.
6.Measure, Standard, Rate, Value
I am taller than you by two inches.
Fought with courage.
Won with ease.
After every effort.
Light emanates from the sun.
Special Uses of Prepositions
1.Use ?in or at? with names of cities, town or village.
For example: We stayed in Mumbai./We stayed at Mumbai.
2.Use ?at or to? talk about group activities and shops.
For example: I saw him at the baker?s.
3.Use ?in? with the names of streets and ?at? with house number
For example: He lives in Tanga street
at house no. 17.
4.Use ?on? when think of a place as a surface.
For example: The dog is lying on the
5.?Till? is used for time and ?to? is used for place.
For example: He slept till eight o?
word that modifies the verb is called adverb.
example: quickly, very, etc.
1.Adverb of Manner:
It shows how or in what manner.
Rama sleeps soundly.
The girl works hard.
2.Adverb of Degree or Quantity:
It shows how much or in what degree.
He is too careless.
I am so glad.
3.Adverb of Affirmation and Negation:
It shows confirmation.
He certainly went to Bhopal.
I do not know him.
4.Adverb of Reason:
It shows the reasoning.
He therefore left home.
5.Adverb of Time:
It shows when the verb takes place.
Wasted time never returns.
She comes to school daily.
6.Adverb of Frequency:
It shows how often.
She often makes mistakes.
He seldom comes here.
7.Adverb of Place:
It shows where.
My mother is out.
The horse runs away
The adverb which is used to ask questions is called
When did you come?
(Interrogative adverb of time)
Where is Rahul?
(Interrogative adverb of place)
The adverb which relates back to its antecedent sentence
is called relative adverb.
This is the reason why I left.
How to Compare Adverbs?
Some adverbs, like adjectives, have three degrees of
comparison positive, comparative and superlative.
Fast Faster Fastest
Formation of Adverb:
Mostly adverbs are the compound of noun, compound of
preposition and adjective, compound of preposition and adverbs and are derived
from pronouns, e.g.
a bed (on bed) (compound of Noun)
of preposition and adjective)
of preposition on and adverb)
Some adverbs are formed by adjectives.
For example: beautifully happily
Uses of Adverb:
1.Adverb of manner is used generally after the verb or after the
For example: It is raining heavily
2.Adverb of place and of time after the verb or object.
For example: I met him yesterday
3.Adverb of frequency used between the subject and the verb.
For example: His wdfe never cooks.
4.Adverbs are usually put before an auxiliary or the single verb ?be?.
For example: Do you eat meat? Yes, I sometimes do.
5.When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, the adverb
usually comes before it.
For example: Rama is rather a lazy
Verb is a word or group of words
that expresses action. feeling or existence.
1.Intransitive Verb:The verb that does not need any
object to make a sentence meaningful is called intransitive verb.For example:Ram writes.Neetu plays.2.Transitive Verb:The verb that needs an object to
make a meaningful sentence is called transitive verb.For example:Neetu plays
lawn tennis.Nita loves
me.(a) Transitive Verb
with Two ObjectsThere are two
objects with transitive verbs:A person and
a thingThe person is an indirect and
the thing is a direct object.For example:Mr. Sharma
teaches us Hindi.He told us
about an incident.If direct object comes before
indirect object, then we have to use ?to? or ?for? before indirect object.For example:I bought a
bouquet for my mother.(a) Transitive
Verb with Object and ComplementThere is a complement with
object in the sentence.For example:He offered
her (object) a book (complement).3.Linking Verb:The verb that needs a complement
to make a meaningful sentence is called linking verb.(a)
complement describes subject.For example:The soup is
the soup (subject).(b)
complement describes object.For example:They chose
Mr. Khanna, their leader.
Leader describes Mr. Khanna (object).
Auxiliary verbs are the helping verbs which help the main
verb in tense, mood or voice.
For example: has, have, shall, is, are, am
I had opened the door
All the verbs have three forms.
ArticleArticlesIn English language there are
three articles. They are: ?A?, ?An? and ?The?. These three articles are
divided into two parts:(i) Indefinite Articles ? ?a?
and ?an?(ii) Definite Article -
"A" and "An"?A? is used before a word which
starts with a consonant or a vowel which sounds like a consonant.·ExampleA book, a pen, a chair, a one
rupee note, etc.?An? is used before a word which
starts with a vowel or a consonant which sounds like a vowel.·ExampleAn apple,
an egg, an honest man, etc.See the
following examples:A one eyed
manHere ?a? is used before ?one?
because "one" sounds like Wone or Vone which is a consonant.A
universityHere University sounds like
Yuniversity which is a consonant.An M.L.A.Here M.L.A. sounds like Am al a'
which is a vowel.See some
other uses of indefinite articles.1.We use ?a/an? when we use
noun/pronoun for the first time in a sentence.He is wearing
a suit and a tie.They have a
cat.2.We use ?a/an? to say what
kind of person or thing someone or something is (often with an adjective or to
say it belongs to a particular group).You have a
nice house.That?s a
very expensive car!A cat is
an animal a bus is a vehicle.3.We use ?a/an? to talk about
someone's job.My wife is
an optician.She works as a
mechanic.Remember(i) Indefinite Article are not
used with uncountable noun.(ii) Article is not used before
the name of games. For example: She plays ludo.(iii) Article is not used before
some diseases like cholera, malaria, fever and typhoid,etc.(iv) Article
is not used before the name of festivals.(v) Article is not used before
plural Countable Nouns when they indicate a class.(vi) No article is used before
the names of language.(vii) No article is used before
Proper Noun, Material Noun and Abstract Nouns.Definite Article ?The?Definite Article: Definite Article (the) points out a particular person,
animal, thing or place.1.?The? is used before a noun
beginning with a consonant or a vowel sound.For example:?The apple you more...
word which is used in the place of noun is called pronoun.
The pronoun which indicates a person is called personal
For example: I am going
She is eating.
Personal Pronoun are used for first, second and third
Various Forms and Functions of the Personal Pronoun:
NounThe name of a person, place or a
thing is called noun. For example: Taj Mahal, book, Arun, etc.1.Proper Noun:The name given to a particular
person, place or thing is a proper noun.For example:Kolkata is a
large city.Grant is
reading the book.2.Common Noun:A noun that gives a common name
to person, place, animal or thing is called common noun.?Countable Noun:Common noun which can be counted
is called countable noun.For example:Girls are going to the school.There are
many flowers on the plant.?Uncountable (Mass) Noun:Common noun which cannot be
counted is called uncountable noun.For example:Take a glass
of milk.Water is necessary for life.3.Collective Noun:A collective noun is the name of
a collection of persons or things taken together as a single unit.For example:Our team
won the match.Indian army
fought bravely.4.Material Noun:The noun that is used for the
raw substance of which things are made is called material noun.For example:The glass is
made up of steel.The jewellery
is made up of gold.5.Abstract Noun:The noun that is used to
describe action, state or quality is called abstract noun.For example:Honesty is the best policy.Laughter is the best medicine.
Jumbled Words and Sentences
group of letters which makes sense is called a word. In a jumbled word, the
letters of the alphabet are not in order. They are in mixed form. You have to
arrange these letters to make a meaningful word.
at the following examples.
1.IJUNRY = INJURY2.ERATS = TEARS3.THIWUTO = WITHOUT4.KESCTH = SKETCH5.SPMA = SPAMSentenceA group of words making a
complete sense is called sentence.There are
mainly five kinds of sentences.1.Assertive sentence: A sentence that states or declares something is called an assertive
or declarative sentence.For example:
I go to school by bus.2.Interrogative sentence: A sentence that asks a question is called a question or an
interrogative sentence.For example:
What is your name?3.Imperative sentence: A sentence that expresses a command, request, suggestion,
order or advice is called an imperative sentence.For example:
Keep silence.4.Exclamatory sentence: A sentence that expresses some strong feelings or emotions
such as joy sorrow, surprise or contempt is called an exclamatory sentence.For example:
How beautiful the flower is!
5.Optative sentence: A sentence which expresses wish, desire or
pray is called an optative sentence.
For example: May God bless you!
In these types of questions, you
are provided with the first and last parts of a sentence. The remaining
sentence is broken into four parts labelled (P), (Q), (R) and (S). You are required
to arrange these parts so as to form a complete meaningful sentence.Look at the
following examples.1.The collector said that theP: supply of water for irrigationQ: dams should receive waterR: upto a particular levelS: to ensure uninterruptedThe proper
sequence should be(a) QRSP
(b) PSQR(c) RQSP
(d) SPRQ(e) None of
theseAns. (a)2.When youP: which one is closest in meaningQ: read the four sentence in your text book and decideR: to the statement more...