# Current Affairs 6th Class

#### Introduction

Introduction   In jumbled sentences words are not arranged in a proper order. You need to arrange the words in proper order to make a meaningful sentence.       In /to/ education/ strive/ we/ excellence/ achieve Solution: We strive to achieve excellence in education.   Few more examples   Rearrange the words and make a meaningful sentence.         1                2              3            4             5                        6              7 1.       Said / the child/ that / leave /the mother / alone / could not / she. The mother said that she could not leave the child alone. 2.       After / Steve / had / the theatre / begun / reached / show / the. Steve reached the theatre after the show had begun. 3.       and/Pond /jumped/the dog / into the/angry/died The angry dog jumped into the pond and died. 4.       The ball / against / threw / the wall / Smith. Smith threw the ball against the wall.         1                     2            3         4          5    6    7 5.       Shakespeare/greater/all/poets/than/is/other. Shakespeare is greater than all other poets. 6.       Bridge/over/is a/there/the stream. There is a bridge over the stream. 7.       Pay/you/on time/dues/must/the. You must pay the dues on time. 8.       Hockey / evening / we/a / match / last / play. We played a hockey match last evening. 9.       Last / met / Sunday / her / you. You met her last Sunday. 10.    Metal / useful / is a / steel / very.

#### Practice Exercise

Practice Exercise   Change the following sentences into simple future tense:   We like talking. Solution: We will like talking He paints a picture. Solution: He will paint a picture.     Change the following sentences into simple past tense: I write a letter. Solution: I wrote a letter They watch movies. Solution: They watched movies.       Find the kind of tense each sentence has.       He was busy in rescue operation. (A) Simple past                                                 (B) Past Continuous (C) Past Perfect                                                (D) Past Perfect Continuous (E) None of these     Answer : (A) Explanation: The sentence is in simple past         You will be crossing the bridge. (A) Simple Future                                            (B) Future Continuous (C) Future Perfect                                           (D) Future perfect Continuous (E) None of these     Answer: (B) Explanation: The sentence is future continuous tense.

#### Future Tense

Future Tense   In Future Tense, a verb indicates that an action will take place in future.           Look at the following sentences:
•   He will go to Delhi tomorrow.
•   The officer will be writing a letter to the minister.
•   Serena will have eaten the mango.
In the sentence given above the verbs will go, will be writing and will have eaten show an action to be done in future time. These verbs are said to be in the future tense. Future Tense shows an action to be done in future (coming) time.            Future Indefinite Tense The Future Indefinite Tense is used to express a supposed action, determination and to put questions. This tense shows an action to be done in a general way in the future.           Look at the following sentences
•   Twinkle will know her result soon.
•   Zacob will go home tomorrow.
In the sentence given above the verbs will know and will go show an action to be done in the future time. These verbs are in Future Indefinite Tense.            Use of Future Indefinite Tense 1.       Future Indefinite Tense is used to show a future event.       Children will play in the room.   2.       Future Indefinite Tense is used when we think to do something at the Time of speaking.       It is hot. I will drink cold water.            Future Continuous Tense The Future Continuous Tense is used to indicate the continuity of a supposed action. This Tense shows an action going on at some time in the future.           Look at the following sentences:
•   Vicky will be playing the match at that time.
•   Zacob will be appearing in the entrance exam.
In the sentence given above the verbs "will be singing" and "will be happy" show an action going on at some time in the future. These verbs are in Future Continuous Tense            Use of Future Continuous   1.       Future Continuous Tense is used to show an action in progress at some time in future.       We think, she will be playing when we start.   2.       Future Continuous Tense is used to show some future plan.       Alberto will be visiting the Taj Mahal for a week.              Future Perfect Tense more...

#### Past Tense

Past Tense   When a verb indicates an action in the past, it is known as the Past Tense.          Look at the following sentences:
• He wrote a beautiful poem.
• Steve was playing is the court yesterday.
• They had come on time.
• She had been going to English class for two months.
In the sentence given above the verbs wrote, was playing, had come and had been going show an action of past time. These verbs are said to be in the Past Tense.               Simple Past / Past Indefinite Tense Formation: Subject +  + Object.   Look at the following sentences: He sang a beautiful song. The speaker delivered the speech.   Use of Simple Past Tense 1.       We use the simple past tense to talk about an action or a situation – an event - in the past.       He went to Singapore with his parents last week. 2.       Past Indefinite Tense is used to show an action completed in the past.       Maria left the town. 3.       Past Tense is used to show a habitual action in the past.       I used to play chess here.             Types of Simple Past Tense   1.     Affirmative        You wrote a poem.   2.    Negative         You did not write a poem.   3.     Interrogative          Did you write a poem?   4.       Interrogative with "WH" family            What did you write?   Note: Use first form of verb with did.             Past Continuous Tense The Past Continuous Tense is used to express the continuity of some past actions and to put questions. This Tense shows an action going on in the Past and not completed.              Look at the following sentences:
•   Roger was celebrating his victory.
•   Mary was looking at the stars.
In the sentence given above the verbs was celebrating and was looking show an action going on in the past. Here the action is incomplete. The time of action may or may not be indicated. These verbs are in Past Continuous Tense.              Use of Past Continuous Tense 1.       Past Continuous Tense is used to show an action started and continuing in the past time.         She was watching the television.   2.       Past Continuous more...

#### Present Tense

Present Tense   Present tense locates a situation or event in present time. It expresses action in the present, a current state of being, an occurrence in the future, or an action that started in the past and continues.            Look at the following sentences: Steve learns a lesson. He is going to Mumbai. I have met him twice. He has been watching TV for half an hour. The sentence given above show action in present time             Simple Present /Present Indefinite Formation: Subject + ${{\text{V}}_{\text{1}}}$ or s/es form of verb + Object. See the following explanation The simple present tense takes one of the two forms depending on the subject. Subjects followed by verb in                                                                    Subjects with verb in s/es form base form: 1. They request us to come to their home                                                  1. He lives in New York. 2. You always believe in preaching rather than implementing.               2. She loves playing badminton. 3. We work sincerely.                                                                                         3. Teacher teaches us.        He wakes up at 6AM daily in the morning. Steve plays cricket in the morning. He goes to Singapore every year.   2.       Simple Present Tense is used to show general or permanent truth.       The sun rises in the east. The earth revolves round the sun.            Types of Simple Present Tense 1.      Affirmative You read a book. He reads a book.   2.      Negative You do not read a book. He does not read a book.   3.      Interrogative Do you read a book? Does he read a book?   4.       Interrogative with "WH" family Whatdoyou read? What does he read?            Present Continuous Tense Formation: Subject + is/are/am + ${{\text{V}}_{\text{1}}}$ + ing + Object.           Look at the following sentences:
•   Serena is moving with a great speed.
•   We are attending the class.
In the sentence given above the verbs "is moving" and "are attending" show an more...

#### Introduction

Introduction   Tense is the time of a verb's action or state of being, such as past, present or future.   There are three kinds of tense. They are as follows: A. Present Tense B. Past Tense C. Future Tense   These three tenses are further divided into four parts. They are the following: (i) Simple or Indefinite (ii) Continuous or Progressive (iii) Perfect (iv) Perfect continuous Let's discuss the tense one by one.

#### Indirect Speech

Indirect Speech   Definition: When the substance or meaning of a person's speech is presented, it is called Indirect speech.
•   Steve said, "He will go to New York."
•   Steve said that he would go to New York.
The two sentences given above refer to the two ways of reporting the words of a speaker. In sentence two, the actual or exact words of the speaker is not presented. But the substance or meaning of the speech is presented. The speech is called Indirect Speech.     Remember it
•   In Indirect Speech the words of the speaker are not put within Inverted Commas.
•   A Conjunction is introduced after said. The comma and Inverted Commas are omitted.
•   The Tense of the actual words of the speaker may or may not change.
•   The Person used within Inverted Commas may or may not change.
General Rules for Changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech. There are three general rules for changing Direct Speech to Indirect speech. 1. Change of Tense 2. Change of Person 3. Change of other parts of speech.           Change of Tense (i)   When the reporting verb is in present or future tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech does not change.           Direct : Juliet says, "It is four o'clock." Indirect : Juliet says that it is four o'clock. Direct : He will say, "I can solve this problem." Indirect : He will say that he can solve that problem.     (iii) When the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense of the Verb in the reported speech is changed into the corresponding past tense as per the following table   more...

#### Direct Speech

Direct Speech   Definition: When the actual or exact words of a speaker is presented, it is called Direct Speech.
•   Anita said, "she will go to New York."
•   Anita said that she would go to New York.
The two sentence given above refer to the two ways of reporting the words of a speaker. In sentence 1, the actual or exact words of the speaker is presented. This speech is called Direct Speech.           Remember it
•   In Direct Speech the actual words of the speaker are put within Inverted Commas (" ")
•   The sentence within Inverted Commas begin with a Capital Letter.
There are two parts of a sentence in Direct Speech. They are the following:   1.       Reporting Verb: The first part of the sentence in Direct Speech is called Reporting Verb.       Anita said   2.       Reported Speech: The actual words of the speaker put within Inverted Commas is called Reported Speech.       "She will go to New York."

#### Introduction

Introduction   The art of reporting words of a speaker is called Narration. There two main ways of reporting the words of a speaker: (i)  Direct speech (ii)  Indirect speech

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 Direct Speech Indirect Speech Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Perfect Past Continuous Past perfect Continuous Past Perfect No Change-remains same Past Perfect Continuous