Current Affairs 6th Class

*     Introduction   Notice is a mode of communication targeted at a specific section of people. Writing an effective notice is a kind of art that can acquired by practice, with keeping some basic points in mind? Notice should give clear and complete information and must be written in easily understandable language.   A good and effective notice must include the following points:
  • Name of the organization/office/institution issuing the notice.
  • Date
  • The heading 'Notice' to make it very clear.
  • Purpose for which it has been written
  • Details of schedule, i.e. time, venue, programme, duration etc., in case the notice is about an event to be organized in near future.  

*    Use of Modals     *       Use of shall/will Generally "shall" is used with "I and we" and will is used with the rest.     example.jpg I shall by buy a laptop. You will go to market. But If a sentence refers to (1) Promise (2) Willingness (3) Certainty (4) Determination (5) Threat in which case "shall" is used in place of "will" and "will is used in place of "shall".         example.jpg I will help you (Promise or willingness) I will kill you (Threat) Nobody shall touch this book without my permission (Threat)     *      Use of Should (i)   "Should" is used for any active suggestion You should work sincerely Work hard lest you should fail. (ii)   "Should" is used for opinion Which work should I do first? (iii) "Should" is used for duty or obligation I should be at work now. One should wear seat best while driving (iv) "Should" is used for probability or expectation He should be here soon. Steve should have submitted the report.     *      Used of would (i) "Would" is used for past Example: He would go for a walk when he was young. (ii) "Would" is used for polite request Example: Would you like to take a cup of coffee or tea? (iii) In indirect sentence 'would' is used as part of "will" Direct: He said, "He will come". Indirect: He said that he would come. (iv) "Would" is used to express opinion or hope Example: I would like to inform you about it (V) "Would" is used for wish Example: I wish I would be a successful man     *       Use of Can (i) "Can" is used to show power The ambassador can give you visa. (ii) "Can" is used to show ability I can solve this sum. (iii) "Can" is used to show possibility Anyone can speak English? (iv) "Can" is used to take/ give permission Can I sit here You can go now. (V) "Can" is used for polite request Can you do me a favour? Can ItalktoSteve? (VI) "Can" is used to show nature He can speak the truth.     *        Use of Could "Could" is the past form of "can" (i) "Could" is used to show possibility in past I could win the race last year (ii) "I could" is used to show ability in past She could speak English when she was young (iii) "Could" is used for polite request Could you tell me the way to the nearest post office?      *       Use of May (i)   "May" is used for formal permission May I come in sir? more...

*     Modals   In English, modals are the auxiliary verbs which have neither participles nor infinitives.   The following are some of the modal verbs in English grammar: (i) Shall                                 (ii) Will (iii) Should                           (iv) Would (v) Can                                  (vi) Could (vii) May                              (viii) Might (ix) Used to                        (x) Ought to (xi) Need to                       (xii) Dare   Note:
  • Do not use modals for things which happen definitely.
  • Eg: The sun rises in the East.
  • They do not have an -s in the 3rd person singular.
  • Eg: He can play football.
  • Questions are formed without do/does/did.
  • Eg: Can he speak Spanish?
  • It follows a full verb in the infinitive.
  • Eg: They must read the book.
  • There are no past forms (except could and would).
  • Eg: He was allowed to watch the film.
  • When you use the past participle, you tell about things which didn't happen in the past.
  • Eg: You should have told me.  

    *     Writing Stories from Given Outlines   Below are the examples of stories written from given out lines? These will give your idea on how to build stories from the outlines.       example.jpg   Outline: The mice very unhappy-the cat killed many of them-held a meeting to discuss how to get rid of the cat-various suggestion - no plan practicable. Then a young mouse suggested that a bell should be tired round the cats's neck - all welcomed the proposal with joy - an old mouse stood up ? asked who was going to tie the bell round the cat's neck?     *       Belling the Cat In a certain house which was infested with mice, the cat found easy prey. The mice were very unhappy. The cat killed so many of them that they were all in great fear. At last they held a meeting to discuss how they could get rid of the nasty cat. One mouse said this, another said that but none of the plans was of any use. Then a young mouse stood up and said,' The best thing we can do is to tie a bell round the cat's neck. Then when the cat comes we will hear the bell and get out of the way.? All the mice shouted. 'Good! Admirable! Simple! Easy! They all thought it was a very good plan, indeed. But now an old mouse, who had all the while been listening to the proposals quietly, stood up and said, 'Yes, it is a very good plan, no doubt, but who will tie the bell round the cat's neck?' No one came forward to say that he would.   Moral: It is easy to suggest, but different to follow.       example.jpg   Outline: The hare laughed at the slow moving tortoise - the tortoise not at all ashamed of his slow pace - retorted that he could beat the hare in a race - agreed - the hare went away in lighting leaps - the tortoise went slowly after him - the hare confident - had a nap - the tortoise went on and on ? reached the winning post first - the hare beaten in the race.     *     The Hare and the Tortoise One day a hare made fun of the slow tortoise. The tortoise quietly replied that if the hare would run a race with him he would prove that he was not slow. The race began, and the hare quickly leaped ahead at a great pace. He was soon so far in front that he decided to have a little sleep. Plodding steadily on, the tortoise presently passed the sleeping hare. He smiled to himself and kept straight on. After some time the hare awoke and raced on. When he reached the more...

    *     Introduction   Story writing is an art which can be learned only by practice. To write a good story, you must have a clear idea of the whole plot in your mind before you start, and arrange the main points in their proper order.   Points to Keep in Mind While Writing Story 1.       Plot 2.       Narration of events systematically 3.       Use of simple language. 4.       Don't change the main part of the story. Try to reproduce it as it is or as it was, as far as possible. 5.       The order of events may change 6.       Always read the story very carefully and make small points of it and take out the chief points of interest, fun, moral or any other special aspect. 7.       Give a suitable heading to a story, Heading of a story should be as small as possible. 8.       Take out the moral of the story and make it its conclusion as to what it is leading to.  

    *    Practice Exercise      A typical Prakash Padukone day P: Or even a game of tennis Q: Starts off R: On some days S: With an early morning (A) QSPR                                                              (B) QSRP (C) RPSQ                                                              (D) RSQP   Answer: (a)      Alexander P: Was a disciple of Aristotle, Q: Who was a great conqueror, R: Whom the world acknowledge as the greatest philosopher S: The world has ever known (A) PQSR                                                              (B) QPRS (C) RPQS                                                              (D) SPQR   Answer: (b)      Jawaharlal Nehru P: Under the Cabinet Mission Scheme Q: Was the first to articulate R: Long before such an assembly was set up S: The idea of a Constituent Assembly (A) PQSR                                                              (B) QSRP (C) RPQS                                                              (D) SRPQ   Answer: (b)     Question.jpg       The Collector said that the P: Supply of water for irrigation Q: Dams should receive water R: Up to a particular level S: To ensure uninterrupted The proper sequence should be (A) QRSP                                                              (B) RQSP (C) RQSP                                                              (D) SPRQ     Answer: (a) Explanation: (A) Clearly, the correct sentence which would be formed is: "The Collector said that the dams should receive water up to a particular level to ensure uninterrupted supply of water for irrigation.' Thus, the correct sequence is QRSP.         When you P: Which one is closest in meaning? Q: Read the four sentences in your text book and decide R: To the statement you have heard S: Heara statement (A) SRPQ                                                              (B) SQPR (C) SPQR                                                              (D) QPSR     Answer: (b)    

    *     Practice Exercise   Person / my / is a / grandfather/ very busy. Solution: My grandfather is a very busy person. God / to / we / daily / pray. Solution: We pray to God daily, Hear / the / cannot / old man / clearly. Solution: The old man cannot hear clearly. By car / office / to / goes / Richard / his Solution: Richard goes to his office by car.       Question.jpg      Is the / milk / food / complete. (A) Food is the milk complete                     (B) Complete milk is the food (C) Milk is complete food                             (D) Milk is the complete food (E) Complete food is the milk   Answer: (d) Explanation: The correct answer is: Milk is the complete food.        The lion / known as / king / is / the jungle / of the. (A) The jungle is known as the king of the lion (B) The lion is known as king the jungle (C) The lion is king of the jungle     *     Jumbled Sentences of Different Types In these type of questions, you are provided with the first and the last parts of a sentence. The remaining sentence is broken into four parts labelled (P), (Q), (R) and (S). You are required to arrange these parts so as to form a meaningful sentence and then choose the correct combination.

    *    Introduction   In jumbled sentences words are not arranged in a proper order. You need to arrange the words in proper order to make a meaningful sentence.     example.jpg   In /to/ education/ strive/ we/ excellence/ achieve Solution: We strive to achieve excellence in education.   Few more examples   Rearrange the words and make a meaningful sentence.         1                2              3            4             5                        6              7 1.       Said / the child/ that / leave /the mother / alone / could not / she. The mother said that she could not leave the child alone. 2.       After / Steve / had / the theatre / begun / reached / show / the. Steve reached the theatre after the show had begun. 3.       and/Pond /jumped/the dog / into the/angry/died The angry dog jumped into the pond and died. 4.       The ball / against / threw / the wall / Smith. Smith threw the ball against the wall.         1                     2            3         4          5    6    7 5.       Shakespeare/greater/all/poets/than/is/other. Shakespeare is greater than all other poets. 6.       Bridge/over/is a/there/the stream. There is a bridge over the stream. 7.       Pay/you/on time/dues/must/the. You must pay the dues on time. 8.       Hockey / evening / we/a / match / last / play. We played a hockey match last evening. 9.       Last / met / Sunday / her / you. You met her last Sunday. 10.    Metal / useful / is a / steel / very.  

    *   Practice Exercise   Change the following sentences into simple future tense:   We like talking. Solution: We will like talking He paints a picture. Solution: He will paint a picture.     Change the following sentences into simple past tense: I write a letter. Solution: I wrote a letter They watch movies. Solution: They watched movies.     Question.jpg   Find the kind of tense each sentence has.       He was busy in rescue operation. (A) Simple past                                                 (B) Past Continuous (C) Past Perfect                                                (D) Past Perfect Continuous (E) None of these     Answer : (A) Explanation: The sentence is in simple past         You will be crossing the bridge. (A) Simple Future                                            (B) Future Continuous (C) Future Perfect                                           (D) Future perfect Continuous (E) None of these     Answer: (B) Explanation: The sentence is future continuous tense.    

    *   Future Tense   In Future Tense, a verb indicates that an action will take place in future.     *      Look at the following sentences:
    •   He will go to Delhi tomorrow.
    •   The officer will be writing a letter to the minister.
    •   Serena will have eaten the mango.
    In the sentence given above the verbs will go, will be writing and will have eaten show an action to be done in future time. These verbs are said to be in the future tense. Future Tense shows an action to be done in future (coming) time.     *       Future Indefinite Tense The Future Indefinite Tense is used to express a supposed action, determination and to put questions. This tense shows an action to be done in a general way in the future.     *      Look at the following sentences
    •   Twinkle will know her result soon.
    •   Zacob will go home tomorrow.
    In the sentence given above the verbs will know and will go show an action to be done in the future time. These verbs are in Future Indefinite Tense.     *       Use of Future Indefinite Tense 1.       Future Indefinite Tense is used to show a future event.       example.jpg Children will play in the room.   2.       Future Indefinite Tense is used when we think to do something at the Time of speaking.       example.jpg It is hot. I will drink cold water.     *       Future Continuous Tense The Future Continuous Tense is used to indicate the continuity of a supposed action. This Tense shows an action going on at some time in the future.     *      Look at the following sentences:
    •   Vicky will be playing the match at that time.
    •   Zacob will be appearing in the entrance exam.
    In the sentence given above the verbs "will be singing" and "will be happy" show an action going on at some time in the future. These verbs are in Future Continuous Tense      *      Use of Future Continuous   1.       Future Continuous Tense is used to show an action in progress at some time in future.       example.jpg We think, she will be playing when we start.   2.       Future Continuous Tense is used to show some future plan.       example.jpg Alberto will be visiting the Taj Mahal for a week.     *         Future Perfect Tense more...

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