Current Affairs 6th Class

Introduction to MS-Excel 2013   Introduction Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that is used to record and analyses numerical data. It is designed to perform calculations, analyze and visualize data in a spread-sheet. Alphabetical letters are usually assigned to columns and numbers are usually assigned to rows. The point where a column and a row meet is called a cell. The address of a cell is given by the letter representing the column and the number representing a row.   An Excel 2013 Window:     What is a Workbook? A workbook is a collection of worksheets. Excel files are called workbooks. Whenever you start a new project, you will need to create a new workbook. There are several ways to start working with a workbook. You can choose to create a new workbook either with a blank workbook or with a predesigned template.   To create a new blank workbook 1. Select the File tab.     2. Select new, then click blank workbook     3. A new blank workbook will appear   To open an existing workbook In addition to creating new workbooks, you will often need to open a workbook that was previously saved. Listed below are the steps for opening an existing workbook. 1. Select file tab, then click open. 2. Select computer, then click Browser.   3. The open dialog box will appear. Locate and select your workbook, then click open.   To create a new workbook from a template A template is a predefined spreadsheet that can be used to create a new workbook quickly. It saves a lot of time and effort when starting a new project.   Listed below are the steps for creating a new workbook from a template: 1. Click the file tab, then click new, several templates will appear below the blank workbook option.     2. Select a template to review it.   3. A preview of the template will appear, along with additional information on how the template can be used.   4. Click create to use the selected template.   Insert, Delete and Rename Worksheets   Insert Worksheet By default, workbook 2013 contains only one worksheet. You can insert additional worksheets as needed.   v  Click on Home tab under cell group click on Insert sheet. Or v  Use 4- button located on the right side of the sheet tab, to insert new sheet.   Delete Worksheet If you do not need a worksheet, you can delete it from the workbook.   v  Click on the Home tab, under cell group, click on delete sheet. Or v more...

Introduction to MS-PowerPoint 2013   Introduction PowerPoint (PPT) is a powerful, easy to use presentation graphics software program which allows you to create professional ? looking electronic slide shows. PPT is very useful that allows the user to create "presentation slides" that can be displayed on the computer screen or through a projector that is plugged into the computer. Slideshows can include animation, narration, images, videos, and much more.   Few New Features added in PowerPoint 2013   Theme variations In MS-PowerPoint 2013, themes now come with a set of variations, like different color palettes and font families. And it provides new widescreen themes along with standard sizes. Choose a theme and variant from the start screen or from the design tab.   More choices for getting started Instead of opening with a blank presentation, PowerPoint 2013 gives you several ways to start your next presentation using a template, a theme, a recent presentation, or a blank one.   Insert Online Video, Image and Audio PowerPoint 2013 now allows you to add videos, images and audio files directly without first downloading them from the internet to your PC. It allows you to insert an online video in your presentation using the integrated Bing Video Search or YouTube. For instance, to add a YouTube video, just search for it, select the required video from the search results and click ok to add it to your presentation.   Presenter View Presenter view allows you to see your notes on your monitor while the audience only sees the slide. In previous releases, it was difficult to figure out who saw what on which monitor. The improved presentation view fixes that problem and makes it simpler to work with.   Color Picker PowerPoint now includes color picker tool. It has eyedropper, to pick up and apply fill, outline and font colors options. To select a color on the slide, simply click on the eyedropper button and then click on the desired color.   Touch Screen Microsoft has designed PowerPoint 2013 to support touch-screen devices. With touch mode enabled, there will be more space between menu items which makes it easier to use PowerPoint 2013 with your fingers rather than a mouse. You can turn on Touch mode by clicking the Touch mode button on the Quick Access Toolbar.   Creating PowerPoint Presentation:   v  Click on windows button. v  Click All Apps and select Microsoft office. v  Under the Microsoft office list select PowerPoint. v  Click on New option or you may select any suitable template from the list.   Or   v  Simply make use of Windows 10 cortana. Type PowerPoint in the search box. Then select the blank presentation or any suitable template of your choice.   PowerPoint window:   more...

Introduction to HTML   Introduction HTML was developed by Tim Berner-lee in late 1991 at consiel European pour la Research Nuclear (CERN). HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is most widely use language on web to develop web pages.   A web page can get opened in a web browser. The web browser accesses the web page from the web server. A web server may be placed anywhere in the world. To create web pages, text editor and web browser is required. These tools are already exist in the computer. All HTML documents must start with a document type declaration: . It begins withand ends withand the visible part of the HTML document is in betweenand.   HTML Elements, Tags and Attributes Technically, HTML element is the collection of start tag, its attributes, an end tag and everything in between. On the other hand HTML tag either opening or closing is used to mark the start or end of an element. HTML tags are element names surrounded by angle brackets. HTML Tags are used to format the contents.   A tag is a special word enclosed in angle-brackets <>. A tag tells the browser to perform an action as asked by the special word. The special word may be written either in lower case or upper case. The browser will respond to both the cases equally.   The HTML tags are normally comes in pair of start and end tag (an opening tag and closing tag). While the start tag is written in the beginning of the element as ,  the end tag is written at the completion of the element as .   The characteristics or the features of a tag are defined by an attribute. An attribute is used inside a tag. An attribute always takes a value to help the browser perform the specific task in a particular direction. There may be more than one attribute used inside a tag.   Structure of HTML Document     The basic structure of the HTML document is divided into two sections namely, the head and the body. The browser enters the first section after executing the start tag of HTML (telling the browser to begin interpreting the HTML commands) and start tag of HEAD.   Heading tag is used to display the heading or the main topic on the web page. This tag varies from H 1 to H6. This is a container tag. The heading tag shows the heading with the largest font size. As you increase the number in the heading tag, the font size goes down.   The first section helps in changing the heading on the title bar of the HTML document (the webpage). The starting of the heading is shown after the start tag of TITLE and the end is shown by . The end tag of HEAD i.e. tells the browser that the end of first section has come. more...

  SERIES   A series is a uniform set of digits, letters, figures etc. In a series, the terms fall according to a certain rule. To complete a series or to identify a missing term, a candidate is required to identify the rule on which the given series has been formed. Let us illustrate readers with the help of examples and its explained answers.     EXAMPLE   1.         Choose the missing term in the given series. 1, 2, 4, 8, 7, 32                  (a) 12                            (b) 16                            (c) 20                            (d) 28   Explanation (b): In the given series, each term except first term is twice its preceding term. Second term \[=2\times 1=2\] Third term \[=2\times 2=4\] Fourth term \[=2\times 4=8\] Fifth term \[=\text{ }2\times 8=16\] Sixth term \[=\text{ }2\times 16=32\] Thus, required term = 5th term =\[\] So, the correct option is (b).       2.         Identify the missing term. 5, 7, 11, 13, ?, 19, 23               (a) 17                            (b) 16                            (c) 15                            (d) 14   Explanation (a): Let us observe the given series in the following way: 5+2=7 7+4= 11 11+2=13 13+4=\[\] 17+2=19 19+4=23 Clearly, the pattern is: +2, +4, +2, +4, +2, +4 Thus, the missing term is \[\]. So, the correct option is (a).       3.         The following series consists of five figures named problem figures. Select a figure from amongst the figures (a), (b), (c) and (d) which will continue the same series as established by the five problem figures.                 (a)                (b)               (c)            (d)    Explanation (c): In each next figure a new element appears. The upper two elements and the lower two elements interchange their places alternately. Therefore, the correct option is (c).     INSERTING THE MISSING CHARACTER   A pattern is a design or a set of figures and it contains numbers or letters or both. Out of these characters a number/letter is missing. To identify the missing number/letter a candidate is required to decipher the pattern. The following example would be helpful for pattern based problems.     4.         Which number will replace the question mark in pattern below?                           (a) 21                            (b) 23                            (c) 25                            (d) 27   Explanation (c): From fig. (i) : 6 + 4 + 8 = 18 and 18 + 2 = 20 From fig. (ii): 7 + 9 + 8 = 24 and 24 + 2 = 26 more...

  ANALOGY   Analogy refers similar relationship between two or three numbers or letters or words or figures or things etc.   Relationships: The two numbers/letters/figures may be related in any of the various ways. Some of them are as follows: ·         One number is twice or half the other one. ·         One number is greater than or less than the other number by a number. ·         They are consecutive odd, even or prime numbers. ·         Letters at alternate positions in the English alphabet. ·         Skipping of letters in the English alphabet. ·         Movements or rotation of a figure or different elements of a figure in different directions.     EXAMPLE   1.         12 is to 24 as 24 is to ________.             (a) 8                              (b) 16                            (c) 24                            (d) 48   Explanation (d): The second number on the left of 'as' is double the first number and so the second number on the right of 'as' should be double the first number.  Required number Thus, the correct option is (d).     2.         Which figure will replace the question mark in the second pair on the right of:: in the same way as the first pair on the left of :: ?               (a)                   (b)                (c)                    (d)   Explanation (c): The first figure rotates  CW to obtain the second figure. Hence, the correct option is (c).     CLASSIFICATION   In 'classification', we classify various items into a group on the basis of their common properties. These items may be numbers, letters, figures, things, places etc. In such type of problems, some items are given.   All these items except one are similar in some manner. A candidate is required to identify the odd one out. Let us illustrate problems with the help of examples.     3.         Choose the odd one out.             (a) 10                            (b) 40                            (c) 64                            (d) 81   Explanation (d): Except 81, all other are even numbers. So, the correct option is (d).     more...

WHAT IS CODING? Coding is a method of expressing something in a secret way.   WHAT IS DECODING? Decoding is a process to understand a code language.   TYPES OF CODING   1.            Letter Coding: in this type of coding, letters are used in forward or backward or both the directions for making some code language. 2.            Direct Letter Coding: Sometimes letters of a word are directly replaced by other letters. For example :                Word                                               Code               ZOOLOGY                                PMMTMHD               Here, Z, O, L, G and Y are replaced by P, M, T, H and D. Similarly, GOOGLY can be coded as HMMHTD. 3.            Number/Symbol Coding: Sometimes numerals or symbols are assigned to words. 4.            Substitution Coding: Sometimes some particular words are assigned to certain names.     EXAMPLE   If in a certain code language, POPULAR is coded as QPQVMBS, then which word would be coded as GBNPVT? (a) FARMER                   (b) FAMOUS                  (c) FRAMES                   (d) FARMES   Explanation (b): POPULAR is coded in the following way: Similarly, we can obtain the word for which GBNPVT is code. Consider as follows: Thus, the required word is FAMOUS. So, the correct option is (b).  

In this section, problems are based on blood relations. The process of solving these problems (puzzles) depends upon the deeply knowledge of blood relations. The common relations are: Father, Mother, Grandparents, Wife, Husband, Son, Daughter, Grandchild, Sister, Brother etc.   Remarks: 1. Relatives on the mother's side are called 'maternal'. For example, mother's brother is called maternal uncle. 2. Relatives on the father's side are called 'paternal'. For example, father's brother is called paternal uncle. 3. Assume a relation as paternal relation, unless stated otherwise.   HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
  • To solve problems, find right gender of required relation and eliminate all wrong choices if any. Also find generation gaps to solve quickly..
  • You can solve by drawing a generation diagram. For this put lower generation below the upper generation and mention M (or m) and F (or f) within brackets for male and female respectively.
  • Note: Someone's gender can not be decided by his/her name.
  EXAMPLE     Pointing to a lady in the photograph, Neeloo said, "Her son's father is the son-in-law of my mother." How is Neeloo related to the lady? (a) Aunt                         (b) Sister                        (c) Mother                             (d) Cousin   Explanation (b): Lady's son's father is lady's husband. So, the lady's husband is the son-in-law of Neeloo's mother, i.e. the lady is the daughter of Neeloo's mother. Thus, Neeloo is the lady's sister. Hence, the correct option is (b).  

Main Directions: There are four main directions viz. East, West, North and South. East and West as well as North and South are opposite to each other as shown below. The sun always rises in the East and sets in the West.   Four Other Directions: There are four other directions which lie in between the four main directions. These are: North-East (N-E), North-West (N-W), South-East (S-E), South-West (S-W) Let us show these four directions with the main four directions.   Two Cyclic Directions: There are two cyclic directions namely clockwise and anticlockwise. The direction of moving as clock's hands is called clockwise direction while its opposite direction is called anticlockwise direction as shown below.     EXAMPLE     If South-East becomes North, North-East becomes West and so on. What will South become? (a) North-East                 (b) North-West                (c) West                          (d) East   Explanation (a): South-East becomes North, it means each direction rotates clockwise through. Therefore, South will become North-East. So, the correct option is (a)  

WHAT IS VENN DIAGRAM? Venn diagram is a pictorial representation of classes representing items and their common properties. We usually use circles to draw a venn diagram. A venn diagram consists of two or more circles. Circles may or may not have some common regions according as the respective classes have or do not have common properties amongst them. Let us illustrate venn diagrams with the following example.     EXAMPLE     Which of the following diagrams represents the best relation amongst 'Villages', 'India? and 'Moon'? (a)                                         (b)           (c)                                               (d)   Explanation (a): Villages are the parts of India. But moon is separate from these two. So, the correct option is (a).  

  ALPHA - NUMERIC SEQUENCE PUZZLE   Such type of puzzle is a jumbled sequence of numbers and letters. A puzzle is given and a candidate is asked how many times a number/letter follows a certain rule or which number/letter follows a certain rule.     EXAMPLE   1.         How many 4's are there in the following arrangement each of which is immediately preceded by an even number but not immediately followed by 6?              2  4  2  E  D  Q  3  9  2  4  7  M  6  6  T  6  4  1  N  8  4  6             (a) One                          (b) Two                         (c) Three                        (d) Four   Explanation (c): Let us take the given arrangement.                                     \[\] E D Q 3 9 \[\] M 6 6 T\[\]N 8 4 6     NUMBER, RANKING AND TIME SEQUENCE TEST   Number Test: In problems on number Test, a sequence of numbers is given and a question is asked in that way as asked in Alpha-Numeric Sequence Puzzle.                            Ranking Test: In ranking based problems, usually the ranks of one or two persons from the top and from the bottom are mentioned. A candidate is required to compute either total number of persons or rank of a particular person.   2.         If Sahil finds that he is twelfth from the right end in a line of boys and fourth from the left end, then how many boys should be added to the line such that there are 28 boys in the line?              (a) 11                            (b) 13                            (c) 15                            (d) 18   Explanation (b): Number of boys from the right end to Sahil = 12 Number of boys from the left end to Sahil = 4 In the above two statements Sahil is counted twice. So, the actual number of all the boys \[=12+4-1=15\] Now, the required number of additional boys \[=\text{ }28-15=13\]   Time Sequence Test:
  •          To solve time based problems the following information?s are very useful.
  •          In every 1 hour, the hour hand rotates \[30{}^\circ \]and the minute hand rotates\[360{}^\circ \].
  •          The year which is divisible by 4 is called a leap year. E.g. 2012 is a leap year.
  •          A century year which is more...

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