Current Affairs 6th Class

*     Active to Passive as per Tense     *       Present Tense 1.       Simple Present Tense Active  : Subject + Verb + Object Example : I like tea. Passive : Object + is / am /are + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : Tea is liked by me.     2.       Present Continuous Tense Active  : Subject + is / am / are + verb (ing) + Object. Example : He is writing a story. Passive : Object + is / am / are + being + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example: A story is being written by him.     3.       Present Perfect Tense Active  : Subject + has / have + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + Object Example : Richards has eaten apple. Passive : Object + has / have + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example : Apple has been eaten by Richards.     4.       Present Perfect Continuous Tense No Passive.     *       Past Tense 1.       Simple Past Tense Active : Subject + \[{{V}_{2}}\] + Object Example : He wrote a letter. Passive : Object + was / were + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : A letter was written by him.     2.       Past Continuous Tense Active  : Subject + was / were + verb (ing) + Object. Example : They were making noise. Passive : Object + was / were + being + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : Noise was being made by them.     3.       Past Perfect Tense Active  : Subject + had + \[{{V}_{3}}\]+ Object Example : The police had arrested the thieves. Passive : Object + had + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject Example : The thieves had been arrested by the police.     4.       Past Perfect Continuous Tense No Passive.     *       Future Tense 1.       Simple Future Tense Active  : Subject + shall / will + verb + object Example : He will pass the exam. Passive : Object + shall / will + be + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example : The exam will be passed by him.     2.       Future Continuous Tense No Passive     3.       Future Perfect Tense Active  : Subject + shall/will + have + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + Object. Example : You will have completed the task. Passive : Object + shall / will + have + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + subject. Example : The task will have been completed by him.     4.       Future Perfect Continuous Tense No Passive     *       Modal verbs (Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Should, Would + Main Verb) Active       :           Subject + modal + verb + object. Example   :          Richards can eat apple. Passive     :          Object + modal + be + \[{{V}_{3}}\] + by + Subject. Example   :          Apple more...

*     Definition   The voice is the form of verb which indicates whether a person or thing does something or something has been done to a person or thing.
  •   You write a letter
  •   A letter is written by you.
In the sentences given above, both the sentences have the similar meaning But in the first example subject works itself whereas in second example the object is used as subject.     *      There are two kinds of voice: (i) Active voice (ii) Passive voice     *         Active Voice Definition: When the subject or person or thing is the doer of an action, the form of the verb is said to be in Active Voice.
  •  The farmer ploughs the field.
  •  The field is ploughed by the farmer.  
  *       Now notice the difference between these two sentences. In first sentence, the form of the verb shows that the subject the farmer, is doing something. It is the doer of the action. In other words, it can also be said the subject is active. So the verb form, "ploughs" is said to be in Active Voice.     *      Passive Voice Definition: When the subject (person or thing) is the receiver of an action, form of the verb is said to be in Passive Voice.
  •  The farmer ploughs the field.
  •  The field is ploughed by the farmer.  
  *       Now notice the difference between these two sentences. In the second sentence, the form of the verb shows that the subject the farmer is the receiver of the action or something is done to the Subject. In other words, it can also be said that the Subject is not Active but Passive. So the Verb form "is ploughed" is said to be in Passive Voice. Therefore, Active voice is a direct way to show an action whereas passive voice is an indirect way to show to show an action.     *      Remember
  •  Voice is that form of Verb which shows whether the subject is doer of the action or receiver of the action.
  •  A Transitive Verb has two Voice:
(i) Active Voice (ii) Passive Voice
  •  Voice change is the change in the structure of a sentence.
  •  There is no change in the meaning of the sentences of Active and Passive Voice.  
  *        Changing of Active Voice into Passive Voice     *       Rules for changing active to passive: (i) The subject changes into object and object changes into subject. Active: Steve learns a lesson. Passive: A lesson is learned by Steve. more...

*     Definite Article 'the'   Definite Article: Definite Article (the) points out a particular person, animal, thing or Place. The is used before a noun beginning with a consonant or a vowel sound. Definite Article 'the': You use the when you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person/thing you are talking about.     example.jpg "The apple you ate was rotten." "Did you lock the car?" The is used when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.     example.jpg   Ashoka was a king. The king was great. We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe.     example.jpg   The North Pole, the equator We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing.     example.jpg   The rain, the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House etc. However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use a/an.     example.jpg     "I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing." "What are your plans for the future?"/ "She has a promising future ahead of her."   The is also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best, most famous, etc. In this use, 'the' is usually given strong pronunciation:     example.jpg "Harry's Bar is the place to go." "You don't mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?"       *     The is Also Used Before the Following:
  • A class of noun. For example: The dog is a faithful animal.
  • The superlative Degrees of Adjective. For example: The best
  • The names of national, religion and caste. For example: The Hindu, The Indian.
  • The names of famous buildings For example: The Red Fort.
  • The names of sea, river or valley. For example: The Pacific, The Ganga, The Bay of Bengal
  • The names of few countries. For example: The U.S.A., The UK
  • The names of Religious Book For example: The Bible.
  • The names of heavenly bodies. For example: The sun
  • The names of mountains and peaks. For example: The Alps, the Mt. Everest
  • The names of plain, plateau, deserts. For example: The northern plain, the Deccan plateau, the Thardesert.  
  *     When Articles are not Used 1.      We use no article when we are talking about people or things in general. Carrots are good for you. (carrots in general) The carrots growing in my garden are almost ready to eat. (specific carrots) English people drink more...

*     Introduction   In English language there are three articles. They are: "A", "An" and "The".   These three articles are divided into two parts, as follow: (i) Indefinite Articles - "a" and "an" (ii) Definite Article - the     *        Indefinite Article 'A' and 'An' 'A' is used before a word which starts from consonant or vowel but sounds like a consonant. (All the letters of English alphabet except 'A', 'E', 'l', 'O', 'U')     example.jpg   A book, a pen, a chair, a one rupee note, etc. An is used before a word which starts from vowel or consonant but sounds like vowel.     example.jpg An apple, an egg, an honest man, etc. See the following examples: A one eyed man. Here "A" is used before "one" because "One" sounds like Wone or Vone which is a consonant. A university. Here University sounds like Yuniversity which is a consonant. An M.L.A. Here M.L.A. sounds like 'Am al a' which is a vowel.     *      See some other uses of indefinite articles 1.      We use "a / an" when we use noun/pronoun for the first time is a sentence. He is wearing a suit and a tie. They have a cat. 2.      We use a / an to say what kind of person or thing someone or something is (often with an adjective or to say it belongs to a particular group. You have a nice house. That's a very expensive car! A cat is an animal A bus is a vehicle 3.      We use a/an to talk about someone's job. My wife is an optician. She works as a mechanic.     *       Remember (i) Indefinite Article are not used with uncountable noun. (ii) Article is not used before the name of games. For example: She plays ludo. (iii) Article is not used before some diseases like Cholera, Malaria, fever and typhoid, etc. (iv) Article is not used before the name of festivals. (v) Article is not used before plural Countable Nouns when they indicate a class. (vi) No article is used before the names of language. (vii) No article is used before Proper Noun, Material Noun and Abstract Nouns.  

*     Use of Different Conjunctions     (A) And, As well as: These two conjunctions are used to add one statement to another:     example.jpg (i) The man is poor. He is blind.            The man is poor and blind. (ii) Robin likes tea. Robin likes coffee.             Robin likes tea as well as coffee. (iii) Anima and Twinkle are dancing. (iv) You as well he have lifted the box. (v) Please come and sit beside me. (vi) Garry sells fruits and vegetables.   (B) Or, Either - or, Neither - nor: These conjunctions are used to indicate a choice between one statement and another.     example.jpg (i)  Is he happy? Is he sad?             Is he happy or sad? (ii) I will come. I will send Mohan, if I don't come.              Either i will come or send Mohan. (iii) Steve is not my friend. He is not my brother.               Steve is neither my friend nor my brother.   (C) But, Still, Yet: These conjunctions are used to express contrast between two statements.     example.jpg   (i)   He is intelligent. He does not read.               He is intelligent but he does not read. (ii)  The teacher was angry. He did not scold the boy.                 The teacher was angry still he did not scold the boy, (iii) These books are costly. People buy them.                 These books are costly yet people buy them.   (D)  So, therefore: These conjunctions are used to join two statements where one statement is proved from the other statement.     example.jpg (i) He did not take umbrella. He got wet.             He did not take umbrella so he got wet. (ii) The boy stole bread from the shop. He was arrested by the police.              The boy stole bread from the shop therefore he was arrested by the police.   (E) When, while: These conjunctions are used to join two statements to show time of an action.   example.jpg (i) The cat is away. The mice play.            When the cat is away the mice play. (ii) I met Priya. I was in London.              I met Priya while I was in London.   (F) If, Unless: These conjunctions are used to join two statements to show condition.        example.jpg   (i) You give me money. I will return your pen.           If you give me money. I will return your pen. (ii) You make haste. You cannot reach home in time.             Unless you make more...

*     Introduction   A word that is used to join two words or sentences is known as a Conjunction.
  •   Reema and Rita are friends.
  •   This copy and that book are same.
  •   The elephant is big but the mouse is small.
  •   Amar cannot sit because the chair is dirty.
In the first sentence the word "and" is joining two words "Reema" and "Rita". In the second sentence the word "and" is joining two words "this copy" and 'that book". In the third sentence the word "but" is joining two sentences "the elephant is big and "the mouse is small". In the fourth sentence the word "because" is joining two sentences "Amar cannot sit" and "the chair is dirty". In this way the words "and, "but "and" because" are joining two words or two sentences. These words are called Conjunctions.     *        List of Some Commonly Used Conjunctions And                        But                       Since                        When                    Either-or Although             Because               Till                           While                    Neither-nor As well as            If                             Until                      Unless                  Therefore As                           Or                           Still                         Yet                         Before  

*     Definition   A preposition is a word which comes before a noun or a pronoun and shows its relation to other words in the sentence.     *        See the following examples: 1.   Preposition of time (A) I got up at 9 o'clock. (B) She has been dancing for two hours. (C) She has been swimming since two p.m.   2.   Preposition of manner (A) He earns money by boxing (B) She played with care. (C) He walks on his legs.   3.   Preposition of place (A) An accident took place near the church. (B) A truck ran over a cycle. (C) Stars shine in the sky.   4.    Preposition of direction (A ) The rat ran towards the hole. (B) She went around the temple. (C) A saint came from the East     *        Look at the following usage of prepositions   more...
*     Verb Forms     *      The following are the five forms of verb. Present Tense form                                             :               \[({{V}^{1}})\]  -Go          Come                      Eat Past Tense form                                                   :               \[({{V}^{2}})\] -Went     Came                    Ate Past participle form                                            :               \[({{V}^{3}})\] -Gone      Come                       Eaten Ing form                                                                 :               \[({{V}^{4}})\] -Going      Coming                    Eating Present Tense Third Person Singular form      :               \[({{V}^{5}})\] - Goes    Comes                      Eats       *      The following are the five forms of verb:  
Preposition Usage Examples
on day of the work on Monday
in mother/seasons time of the day year after a certain period of the (when?) in august in winter in the morning in 2006 in an hour
at     since for ago for night for weekend a certain point of time (when? ) from a certain point of time (past till now) over a certain period of time (past till now) a certain time in the past at night at the weekend at the past nine since 1980 for 2 years 2 years ago  
Present \[{{\text{V}}_{\text{1}}}\] Past \[{{\text{V}}_{2}}\] Past P.\[{{\text{V}}_{3}}\] Present Co.\[{{\text{V}}_{4}}\] Present Th. P. Si.\[{{\text{V}}_{5}}\]
Arise        Arose        Arisen       Arising      Arises
Arrive        Arrived      Arrived      Arriving      Arrives
Become      Became     Become      becoming    Becomes
Break Broke Broken Breaking Breaks
Buy Bought Bought more...
*     Kind of Verbs There are three kinds of verbs
  •   Transitive verb
  •   Intransitive verb
  •   Auxiliary verb  
  •   *        Transitive Verb The verb which requires an object after it to complete its sense is called Transitive verb.   Look at the following sentences:
    •  He arrived little early.
    •  Robert provokes me to do the mischief.
    •  The hunter kills the animals brutally.
    •  English has taken the center stage.
    In the sentence given above, verbs "arrived, "provokes", "kills" and "has taken" can't make complete sense. They need the object to make sense. Therefore, they are transitive verb.     *       Intransitive Verb The verb that does not require an object to complete its sense, but makes complete sense by itself is called an Intransitive Verb. Look at the following sentences:
    •   The bell rings.
    •   The flowers blossom.
    •   The fire burns.
    •   The earth moves.
    In the sentence given above, "rings", "blossom", "burns" and "moves" do not need object to complete their sense. They make a complete sense themselves. So these verbs are Intransitive Verbs.     *        Auxiliary Verb The verb which helps the main verb change its form is called Auxiliary or Helping Verb.   Look at the following sentences:
    •   The gardener is watering the plants.
    •   The boy has broken the glass.
    •   I am in a hurry.
    •   These people are laborious.
    In first and second sentences, the words "is" and "has" are helping the verbs "water" and "break" to change their forms. In sentences three and four, the words "am" and "are" themselves are doing the work of a verb. These words are also a kind of verbs. These are Auxiliary or Helping Verbs.   There are three kinds of main verbs, i.e. helping verbs, regular verbs, and irregular verbs.   See some more examples of helping verbs:
    •   The horses are running.
    •   The sun has risen in the sky.
    •   The boat is sailing in the river.
    •   The bird will fly in the air.
    In the above given sentences the words "are", "has", "is" and "will" are helping the verbs "run", "rise", "sail" and "fly" to change their forms. These words are also a kind of verb. These are called Helping Verbs.   Linking Verb: The verb that needs a complement to make a meaningful sentence is called a Linking verb. (A)    Subjective complement The complement describes subject. e.g. The soup is hot. Hot describes the soup (subject). (B)    Objective Complement The complement describes object e.g. They chose Gandhi, their leader. Leader describes Gandhi (object)  

    *   Definition   A verb is a word which shows an action, state of being or possession of a noun or pronoun.                                                                                                    Or The word which says something about a noun or pronoun is called a Verb. (All saying words are verbs)     *     Look at the following sentences:
    •  Subhro had a good opportunity in his hand.
    •  Terrorists attacked the Parliament.
    •  He will proceed as per rule.
    In the sentence given above, the word had, attacked and will proceed are verbs.   Generally verb is divided into two parts. They are the following: 1.  Helping verbs: Is, are, am, was, were, has, had, will, shall, etc. 2.  Main verbs: Go, read, write, learn, sing, walk, talk, etc. Verbs are divided into various kinds as per other criteria as well. See the following:  

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