Current Affairs 6th Class

  Judging Completeness of Process   ·                     Example 1   Below, you can see a set of instructions for using a pipette to measure a required amount of water. Complete the following paragraph which describes how a pipette is used.   1.            Take a pipette and dip the nozzle into water in a vessel.   2.            Suck out the air through the other end.   3.            When the water rises to the mark on the pipette, cover its upper end and take the pipette out.   4.            Then empty the water in the pipette into a breaker. A pipette is taken and the nozzle is dipped into water.   ·                     Example 2   Below, you can see a set of instructions for filling a pen. Complete the following paragraph which describes how a pen is filled.   1.            Remove the cap and hold the pen in the left hand.   2.            Dip it into the inkpot.   3.            Catch the ink-filler pin in the right hand and pull.   4.            Leave it to move back to its original position.   5.            Bring the pen out and check if the ink has been filled  

  Inferring Information   ·                     Example 1 In this section, we try to extract information from the given lines or passages.   Direction (1 - 2): Read the following information and answer the questions that follow it: Paul is taller than Michael, but shorter than Andy. Sam is taller than Michael but shorter than Gary.   1.             Who is the tallest? (a) Andy                        (b) Gary (c) Andy or Gary           (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these Ans.     (d) On arranging: Andy > Paul > Michael Gary > Sam > Michael   2.             Who is the shortest? (a) Paul                           (b) Sam (c) Gary                          (d) Michael (e) None of these Ans.     (d) Michael is the shortest.   ·                     Example 2   Direction (3 - 4): Read the following information and answer the questions that follow it: Among five boys, Dennis is taller than Shaun, but not as much as Raju. Jayant is taller than Dutta but shorter than Shaun.   3.             Who is the tallest? (a) Raju                           (b) Shaun (c) Dennis                         (d) Can't be determined (e) None of these Ans.     (a) On arranging : Raju, Dennis, Shaun, Jayant, Dutta.   4.             Which will be the third word when the following words are arranged according to the dictionary pattern? (a) Amphibian                      (b) Amorphous (c) Ambiguous                    (d) Ambivalent (e) None of these Ans.     (b) On arranging : Ambiguous, Ambivalent, Amorphous, Amphibian.   ·                     Example 3   Direction (5 - 9):   (i)         Nine students A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I are sitting on a bench and are facing towards the sea.   (ii)        C is next to the right of A and second to the left of H.   (iii)       B is on any one end and second to the left of E.   (iv)       G is the neighbour of D and E.   5.             Which of the two students are on the two ends? (a) C and G                  (b) A and G (c) A and E                   (d) B and H (e) None of these Ans.     (d)   6.             Which of the following is true? (a) C and H are neighbours of B. (b) F isjust in the middle of all students. (c) Group of 8 friends isjust left to H. (d) H and F are neighbours of I. (e) None of these Ans.     (c)   7.             Who is just in the middle? (a) H                             (b) F          (c) D                             (d) B (e) None of these Ans.     (c)   8.             Which of the following groups may be just right to F? (a) IHD                          (b) HDC (c) more...

  Modals   The words which show the mode of action denoted by the main verbs are called modals. Main models are shall, will, would, can could, may, might, must, need, ought to, need to, etc.     1.            Shall (a) I shall cat food after 2 hours. (Simple future) (b) Shall I cook maggie for you? (In question to equire the other?s desire) (c) With second person. I say he shall open the door. (Order) You shall get a new shirt if you stand first. He shall be killed for the rude behavior. (Warning) Shall I use your pen? (Permission) I shall gladly visit the book fair. (Willingness) He shall not tell a lie. (Prohibition)   2.            Will (a) He will go tomorrow. (Future tense with second and this person) (b) With first person This glass will hold the whole milk. (Capacity) He will never betray me. (Prediction)     3.            Should (Past form of ?shall?) (a) We said that they should reach home. (Present Past in future) (b) You should help the needy. (Duty or obligation) (c) We should obey our elders. (Advice) (d) Speak carefully lest you should falter. (It shows objective after ?lest?) (e) Should you bring sweets, share them among all. (Supposition)     4.            Would (Past form of ?will?) (a) He told that he would visit my home. (b) Gandhiji would spin every morning. (It tells the past habit) (c) Would you give me a pen? (Polite request in present) (d) Would that I were careful! (Unreal condition) (e) I wish he would reach here soon. (Desire) (f) I would suffer rather than barrow. (Preference) (g) He would stand first if he works hard. (Condition)   5.            Can (a) I can lift the heavy stone. (To show ability) (b) Anyone can learn the poem. (Possibility) (c) You can stand here. (Permission) (d) He can betray you. (Nature) (e) She can?t help weeping. (Compulsion)       6.            Could (Past form of Can) It shows all the properties/power of can, but in past tense. (a) He could teach her. (Ability) (b) He could run fast when he was a child. (Ability)   7.            May (a) May I come in? (Permission) (b) It may rain today. (Possibility) (c) It is cloudy it may rain. (Factual possibility) (d) You earn so that you may live well. (Purpose) (e) May God bless you! (Prayer, wish)   8.            Might (Past form of May) (a) He ran fast so that he might catch the thief. (Purpose in past) (b) He has not promised, but he might help me. (Remote possibility) (c) The tortoise said that he might defeat the hare. (Possibility in past) (d) If you are going to the hospital you might bring more...

  Voice and Narration   Voice Voice is that type of verb which clears that subject does work or work is done for subject   Active Voice In active voice the subject does work.   Let us look at some examples: 1.            Gopal loves Sita. 2.            Ramesh is playing hockey 3.            Raju has eaten my meal. 4.            I took tea yesterday 5.            The dog was eating the bone. 6.            Mother had called me. 7.            I shall pluck many flowers. 8.            She will have cleaned the floor. The above given example show that all the subject like Gopal, Ramesh, Raju are doing their work. So it is called active voice.   Passive Voice In passive voice work is done for subject.     Let us look at some examples: 1.            Sita is loved by Gopal. 2.            Hockey is being played by him. 3.            The meal has been eaten by Raju. 4.            Tea was taken by me yesterday. 5.            The bone was being eaten by the dog. 6.            I had been called by mother. 7.            Many flowers will be plucked by me. 8.            The floor will have been cleaned by her. In these sentences, it shows that work is done for all subjects. Now there is a rule for changing active to passive voice.   Rule for active voice: Subject + verb + object   Rule for passive voice: Object + verb + by + subject   To change active to passive:   Firstly, convert object to subject.    
Object Subject Object Subject
me I you you
her she them more...
  Tenses   Tenses tell us about past, present and future.     Let us look at some examples to recognise the tenses.   Past Tense   1.            Gopal loved Sita. 2.            Rama was jumping in the garden. 3.            We had gone to the market yesterday. 4.            I had been painting the wall for two hours. In these sentences, second form of verb, was, had etc., shows the past tense. To recognise the past tense, we have to see the helping verb in the sentence as underlined in the above sentences.   Present Tense   1.            Gopal loves Sita. 2.            Rama is jumping in the garden. 3.            They are playing. 4.            We have gone to the hospital. 5.            She has gone to the market. 6.            I have been painting the wall for two hours.   Future tense   1.            Gopal will love Sita. 2.            Rama will be jumping in the garden. 3.            I shall be playing in the garden. 4.            We shall have gone to the market. 5.            She will have gone to the hospital. 6.            I shall have been painting the walls for two months. In the above examples you recognise the tense by recognising the underlined helping verbs related to concerned tenses.  

  Conjunction   Conjunctions are words which join two sentences or two words. Actually, you can say the conjunctive words act as a bridge in between two sentences or words or numbers.   ·                     Example 1   1.            Entire world is made up of tiny particles and we are the part of this.   2.            Two boys and three girls make five people.     3.            To say anything is easy but its implementation is hard.   4.            Do or die. So, you can define conjunction as follows: The words which join two sentences or words or number. The words, 'and, but, or' are the conjunctive words. But you must give attention that conjunction must be carefully distinguished from the relative pronouns, relative adverbs and prepositions which are connecting words.   ·                     Example 2   1.            This is the building that the contractor built.   2.            This is the house where Ram lived.     3.            Go there and get the packet. These three sentences use relative pronouns, relative adverbs and conjunctions. In the first sentence ?that? is the relative pronoun which joins both the parts of the sentence. In the second sentence relative adverb 'where' modifies the verb and joins the two parts of the sentence. In the third sentence ?and? is the conjunction which joins the two parts of the sentence. Actually the conjunction merely joins the two sentences while in case of relative pronouns, and relative adverb etc., they do more. Some other words used as conjunctions in pairs:   1.            Either - or ? Either go away or sit down.   2.            Neither - nor ? Neither win nor lose.   3.            Both - and ? We both lay on bed and sleep.   4.            Though - yet ? Though he was feeling bad yet he never expressed.   5.            Whether - or ? I do not bother whether he stays or not   6.            Not only - but also ? Not only men but also women can join army   Classification of Conjunction   There are two types of conjunction 1.            Coordinating conjunction 2.            Subordinating conjunction   Coordinating Conjunction:   Those conjunctions which join two statements of equal rank. For example: ? Earth is moving around the Sun and Moon is moving around the Earth.   Types of coordinating conjunction   (a) Cumulative or Copulative It merely adds one statement to another. For example: ? We carved not a line and we raised not a stone.   (b) Adversative It more...

  Preposition   A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation of a person of a thing with something else. For example: in, of, off, etc. There is a cow in the field. ?In? shows the relation between the cow and the field.     1.            Simple Prepositions: Which shows simply the relation of a person or thing with something else. For example: at, by, from   2.            Compound Preposition: It is generally formed by prefixing a preposition to a noun, an adjective or an adverb. For example: about, behind, underneath   3.            Phrase Prepositions: They are the groups of words used as a single preposition. For example: in accordance with, in place of   4.            Participle Prepositions: The words which are similar to present participles of verbs are sometimes used as prepositions, they are called participle prepositions. For example: barring, concerning, etc.   Concering (= about) yesterday?s fire, there are many rumours in the bazar.     1.            Place For example: Went around the world. Ran across the road.     2.            Time For example: After his death. In the afternoon. 3.            Agency For example: Cut it with a knife. He was stunned by a blow.   4.            Cause, Reason For example: Died from fatigue. Took medicine for cold.   5.            Possession For example: There was no money on him. A man of means.   6.            Measure, Standard, Rate, Value For example: I am taller than you by two inches.   7.            Manner For example: Fought with courage. Won with ease.   8.            Contrast, Concession For example: After every effort.   9.            Inference, Motive For example: Light emanates from the sun.   Special Uses of Prepositions   1.            Use ?in or at? with names of cities, town or village. For example: We stayed in Mumbai./We stayed at Mumbai.   2.            Use ?at or to? talk about group activities and shops. For example: I saw him at the baker?s.   3.            Use ?in? with the names of streets and ?at? with house number For example: He lives in Tanga street at house no. 17.   4.            Use ?on? when think of a place as a surface. For example: The dog is lying on the floor.   5.            ?Till? is used for time and ?to? is used for place. For example: He slept till eight o? clock.   6.            more...

  Adverb   The word that modifies the verb is called adverb. For example: quickly, very, etc.         1.            Adverb of Manner: It shows how or in what manner. For example: Rama sleeps soundly. The girl works hard.     2.            Adverb of Degree or Quantity: It shows how much or in what degree. For example: He is too careless. I am so glad.     3.            Adverb of Affirmation and Negation: It shows confirmation. For example: He certainly went to Bhopal. I do not know him.     4.            Adverb of Reason: It shows the reasoning. For example: He therefore left home.     5.            Adverb of Time: It shows when the verb takes place. For example: Wasted time never returns. She comes to school daily.     6.            Adverb of Frequency: It shows how often. For example: She often makes mistakes. He seldom comes here.     7.            Adverb of Place: It shows where. For example: My mother is out. The horse runs away     Interrogative Adverb: The adverb which is used to ask questions is called interrogative adverb. For example: When did you come? (Interrogative adverb of time) Where is Rahul? (Interrogative adverb of place)   Relative Adverb: The adverb which relates back to its antecedent sentence is called relative adverb. For example: This is the reason why I left.   How to Compare Adverbs? Some adverbs, like adjectives, have three degrees of comparison positive, comparative and superlative. Fast                  Faster                Fastest   Formation of Adverb: Mostly adverbs are the compound of noun, compound of preposition and adjective, compound of preposition and adverbs and are derived from pronouns, e.g. a bed (on bed)                (compound of Noun) abroad                          (compound of preposition and adjective) without                          (compound of preposition on and adverb) there                             (derived from pronoun) Some adverbs are formed by adjectives. For example: beautifully happily sometimes, etc.   Uses of Adverb: 1.            Adverb of manner is used generally after the verb or after the object. For example: It is raining heavily   2.            Adverb of place and of time after the verb or object. For example: I met him yesterday   3.            Adverb of frequency used between the subject and the verb. For example: His wdfe never cooks.   4.            Adverbs are usually put before an auxiliary or the single verb ?be?. For example: Do you eat meat? Yes, I sometimes do.   5.            When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, the adverb usually comes before it. For example: Rama is rather a lazy girl.   6.            But more...

  Verb   Verb is a word or group of words that expresses action. feeling or existence.   1.             Intransitive Verb: The verb that does not need any object to make a sentence meaningful is called intransitive verb. For example: Ram writes. Neetu plays.   2.             Transitive Verb: The verb that needs an object to make a meaningful sentence is called transitive verb. For example: Neetu plays lawn tennis. Nita loves me.       (a)        Transitive Verb with Two Objects There are two objects with transitive verbs: A person and a thing The person is an indirect and the thing is a direct object. For example: Mr. Sharma teaches us Hindi. He told us about an incident. If direct object comes before indirect object, then we have to use ?to? or ?for? before indirect object. For example: I bought a bouquet for my mother.   (a)        Transitive Verb with Object and Complement There is a complement with object in the sentence. For example: He offered her (object) a book (complement).     3.             Linking Verb: The verb that needs a complement to make a meaningful sentence is called linking verb.     (a) Subjective Complement: The complement describes subject. For example: The soup is hot. Hot describes the soup (subject). (b) Objective Complement: The complement describes object. For example: They chose Mr. Khanna, their leader. Leader describes Mr. Khanna (object).   4.             Auxiliary Verb: Auxiliary verbs are the helping verbs which help the main verb in tense, mood or voice. For example: has, have, shall, is, are, am I had opened the door All the verbs have three forms.  
Present Past Past participle
Arise arose arisen
Be was, were more...
  Article   Articles In English language there are three articles. They are: ?A?, ?An? and ?The?. These three articles are divided into two parts:   (i) Indefinite Articles ? ?a? and ?an? (ii) Definite Article - "the"   Indefinite Articles "A" and "An" ?A? is used before a word which starts with a consonant or a vowel which sounds like a consonant.   ·                     Example A book, a pen, a chair, a one rupee note, etc. ?An? is used before a word which starts with a vowel or a consonant which sounds like a vowel.   ·                     Example An apple, an egg, an honest man, etc. See the following examples: A one eyed man Here ?a? is used before ?one? because "one" sounds like Wone or Vone which is a consonant. A university Here University sounds like Yuniversity which is a consonant. An M.L.A. Here M.L.A. sounds like Am al a' which is a vowel.   See some other uses of indefinite articles.   1.            We use ?a/an? when we use noun/pronoun for the first time in a sentence. He is wearing a suit and a tie. They have a cat.   2.            We use ?a/an? to say what kind of person or thing someone or something is (often with an adjective or to say it belongs to a particular group). You have a nice house. That?s a very expensive car! A cat is an animal a bus is a vehicle.   3.            We use ?a/an? to talk about someone's job. My wife is an optician. She works as a mechanic.   Remember   (i) Indefinite Article are not used with uncountable noun. (ii) Article is not used before the name of games. For example: She plays ludo. (iii) Article is not used before some diseases like cholera, malaria, fever and typhoid, etc. (iv) Article is not used before the name of festivals. (v) Article is not used before plural Countable Nouns when they indicate a class. (vi) No article is used before the names of language. (vii) No article is used before Proper Noun, Material Noun and Abstract Nouns.   Definite Article ?The?   Definite Article: Definite Article (the) points out a particular person, animal, thing or place.   1.            ?The? is used before a noun beginning with a consonant or a vowel sound. For example:   ?The apple you more...



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