Category : 6th Class
Whole Numbers
\[\therefore \]N\[=\]{1,2,3,4,.........}
The least natural number is 1.
The greatest natural number does not exist as there is no end for natural numbers.
Whole numbers are represented by W.
\[\therefore \]W= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4,……}
The least whole number is 0.
The greatest whole number does not exist as there is no end for whole numbers.
Successor = given number + 1
Predecessor= given number – 1
(i) Closure property: If 'a' and 'b' are any two whole numbers, then a + b is also a whole number.
e.g., 5 and 13 are whole numbers. Their sum 5 + 13 = 18 is also a whole number.
Hence whole numbers are closed under addition.
(ii) Commutative property: If 'a' and 'b' are any two whole numbers, then a + b = b + a. The order of addition of two whole numbers does not affect their sum.
e.g., 3+11 =14=11+3
Hence whole numbers satisfy the commutative property under addition.
(iii) Associative property: If 'a', 'b' and 'c' are any three whole numbers, then
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) = (a + c) + b
e.g., (2 + 3) + 4 = 9 = 2 + (3 + 4) = (2 + 4) + 3
Hence whole numbers satisfy the associative property under addition.
(iv) Additive identity: If 'a' is any whole number then a+0=0+a=a. Since the sum is the same as the number considered, 0 is called the identity element for addition of whole numbers.
e.g., 9+0=0+9=9
Note: For subtraction of whole numbers closure property. Commutative. Property, identity and associative properties are not applicable.
(i) If 'a' and 'b' are two whole numbers such that a > b (or) a = b then a - b is a whole number. If a < b, then a - b is not a whole number.
(ii) If 'a' and 'b' are two whole numbers such that a\[\ne \] b, then a - b\[\ne \] b - a.
(iii) If 'a' is any whole number, then a - 0 = a, but 0 - a is not a whole number.
(iv) If 'a', 'b' and 'c' are three whole numbers such that a\[\ne \] b \[\ne \]c, then (a - b) - c is not equal to a - (b - c).
Note: For subtraction of whole numbers closure property, commutative property, identity and associative properties are not applicable.
(i) Closure property: If 'a' and 'b' are any two whole numbers, then a x b is also a whole number.
e.g.. For whole numbers 3 and 5, their product 3 \[\times \] 5=15 is also a whole number.
Hence whole numbers are closed under multiplication.
(ii) Commutative property: If 'a' and 'b' are any two whole numbers, then a \[\times \] b = b \[\times \] a.
The order of multiplication of two whole numbers does not affect their product. Hence whole numbers satisfy the commutative property under multiplication.
e.g., 4\[\times \]12 = 48 =12 \[\times \]4
(iii) Associative property: If 'a', 'b' and 'c' are any three whole numbers, then
(a \[\times \]b)\[\times \]c=a\[\times \](b\[\times \]c) = (a\[\times \]c)\[\times \]b.
e.g., (3\[\times \]4)\[\times \]5 = 60 = 3\[\times \](4\[\times \]5) = (3\[\times \]5)\[\times \]4
Hence whole numbers satisfy the associative property under multiplication.
(iv) Multiplicative identity: If 'a' is any whole number, then a\[\times \]1 =1\[\times \]a = a.
Since the product is the same as the number considered, 1 is called the identity element for multiplication of whole numbers.
e.g., 7\[\times \]1 =1\[\times \]7 =7
(v) Multiplicative property of 0: If 'a' is any whole number, then a \[\times \] Q= O\[\times \] a = 0.
e.g., 5\[\times \](6 + 7) = (5\[\times \]6) + (5\[\times \]7) = 65
e.g., 2\[\times \](4 - 3)\[=\] (2\[\times \]4) - (2\[\times \]3) \[=\] 2
(i) If 'a' and 'b' (non-zero) are whole numbers, then a\[\div \]b is not always a whole number
(ii) If \['a'\] is the dividend, \['b'\](Where b \[\ne \]0) is divisor, \['q'\] is the quotient and \['r'\]is the remainder. Then a\[=\] bq +r.
Note: (i) Division by zero is not defined.
(ii) Zero divided by any whole number is always zero.
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