12th Class Biology Molecular basis of inheritance

  • question_answer 59)   During DNA replication, why is it that the entire molecule does not open in one go? Explain replication fork. What are the two functions that the monomers (dNTPs) play?

    Answer:

                      While replicating, the entire DNA molecule to keep the whole molecule stabilized does not open in one go because it would be highly expens energetically. Actually unwiding creates tension in the molecule as uncoiled parts. Actually, unwinding creates tension in the molecule as uncoiled parts start forming super coils due to the interaction of exposed nucleotides. Instead, helicase enzyme acts on the double strand at on site (origin of replication) and a small stretch is unzipped. Immediately, it is held and stabilized by single strand binding proteins. Slowly with the help of enzymes, exposed strands are copied as a point of unwinding move sand ahead in both directions. It gives an appearance of Y-shaped structure which is called replication fork. The two functions that the monomer units of NTPs play are (i) They pair up with exposed nucleotides of the template strand and make phosphodiester linkages and release a pyrophosphate. (ii) Hydrolysis of this pyrophosphate by enzyme pyrophosphatase releases energy that will facilitate making hydrogen bonds between free nucleotides and bases of the template strand.

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