10th Class English Grammar (All Topics) Direct & Indirect Narrations

Direct & Indirect Narrations

Category : 10th Class

*         Direct & Indirect Narrations


Introduction: Narration means something that is narrated, an account of, detailing an event, etc. The word 'narration' is taken from the word 'narrate', which means 'to give an account or tell something'.  

There are two types of narration:

(i)  Direct

(ii) Indirect  


*            Direct Narration

States the statement of person, exactly the same, spoken by him or her. This statement is put within inverted commas (" ").  



Sita said, "I have seen Hanuman."

The sentence contains the statement as said by Sita - "I have seen Hanuman", which in Direct Narration.  


*            Indirect Narration

States the statement of a person, which we analyse or interpret in our own words; or just narrate or summa rise the principal motive of the speaker.  



Sonia said that she was late for the meeting.

The sentence focuses the statement of Sonia, which we expressed in our own words. This sentence is said to be in Indirect Narration.  


*            Kinds of Narration

When a speech is quoted in the actual words used by the speaker, it is called the Direct Speech or Narration. But when the speech is reported in the form of a narrative, giving the substance or meaning or the words used by the speaker, without quoting his actual words, it is called the Indirect Speech or Narration.  



Rahul says, "I want to visit Mumbai." - Direct Speech Rahul says that he wants to visit Mumbai. - Indirect Speech  

Some Important Facts on Narration

1.       Look at the following sentence.

Raju said, "I am happy."

The first part of the sentence - 'Raju said' is called Reporting speech / Reporting clause / Reporting verb, etc.

The second part of the sentence - 'I am happy' is called Reported speech / Reported clause / Reported statement, etc.  

2.       Reported speech can be used at the beginning / end / middle of the sentence.    





(i)   The principal said, "The school shall remain closed for a month." (Reported speech at the beginning of the sentence.)

(ii)  "Let's go for long drive", he said to his friends. (Reported speech at the end of the sentence.)

(iii) "Shakespeare", said the teacher, "was a world-famous dramatist". (Reported speech in the middle of the sentence.)  


*            General Rules of Narration

(a)         Present Indefinite changes into Past Indefinite Tense.

(b)         Present Imperfect changes into Past Imperfect Tense.

(c)         Present Perfect changes into Past Perfect Tense.

(d)         Present Perfect Continuous changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

(e)         Past Indefinite changes into Past Perfect Tense.

(f)          Past Imperfect changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

(g)         Like the various changes, 'can' changes into 'could', 'shall' into 'should', 'will' into 'would', 'may' into 'might'.  


*            Usage of 'Let' in Indirect Narration

Inferences on 'Let'.

(i) The usage of 'Let' is only 'to suggest' and sometimes 'to propose'.

(ii) 'Let' is used to mean 'to allow'.

Here are a few rules on the context when 'let' is used to refer 'to advice' or to 'state a proposal' in Indirect Narration.


(A) 'say' and 'said' are changed into propose / proposed, suggest / suggested, etc.

(B) If there is an Object in the Reporting Verb, 'to' is used after proposed suggested to make use of the Object.  

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