10th Class English Grammar (All Topics) Grammar (All Topics)

Grammar (All Topics)

Category : 10th Class

 

Grammar (All Topics)

 

1. THE SENTENCE

 

When we speak or write we used words. We generally use these words in group as for example-

Little Jack Horner sat in a corner.

A group of words, which makes complete sense, is called a sentence.

 

KINDS OF SENTENCES

 

Kinds of Sentences

 

There are mamly five kinds of sentences.

 

1.         Assertive sentence: A sentence that states or declares something is called an assertive or declarative sentences.

 

2.         Interrogative sentence: A sentence that asks a question is called a question or an interrogative sentence.

For example: What time did you come?

 

3.         Imperative sentence: A sentence that expresses a commond, request, suggestion, order or advice is called an imperative sentence.

For example: Keep silence.

 

4.         Exclamatory sentence: A sentence that expresses some strong feelings or emotions such as joy, sorrow, surprise or contempt is called an exclamatory sentence.

For example: How beautiful the flower is!

 

5.         Optative sentence: A sentence which expresses wish, desire or pray is called an optative sentence.

For example: May God bless you!

 

 

2. TENSES

 

Study the following sentences:

 

1.    My father goes for a morning walk daily

 

2.    She is reading a magazine.

 

3.    I saw Kate yesterday.

 

4.    She was knitting a scarf.

 

5.    We shall go to the zoo tomorrow.

 

6.    He will arrive here next Monday

 

All these sentences refer to certain actions at certain points of time. Sentences 1 and 2 refer to actions happening now, i.e., the present. Similarly, sentences 3 and 1 express actions that happened some time ago, i.e., in the past. Sentences 5 and 6 express actions that will take place some time from now, i.e., in the future. We may refer to tenses as time references.

 

Study the following diagram:

We see that past extends from the speaker's present to the beginning of time, while future extends from the speaker's present to the end of time. We also infer that present divides time but itself moves towards future.

 

 

3. MODALS

 

Study the following diagram:

 

 

Now try to understand the difference between the two categories of Auxiliaries.

 

PRIMARY AUXILIARIES:

1.         Form tenses and the voices

 

2.         Form negative and questions

 

 

 

 

VERB FORMS AT GLANCE

 

Verb ?Go? ? Active Voice

 

Tense

Simple

Continuos

Perfect

P. continuos

Present

Tense

\[{{V}_{1}}\] (s / es) go, goes

is, an, are + \[{{V}_{1}}\]

has / have + \[{{V}_{3}}\]? has gone

has / have been + \[{{V}_{1}}\] + ing

Past

Tense

\[{{V}_{1}}\]? went

was / were + \[{{V}_{1}}\] + ing, was going

had + \[{{V}_{3}}\] had gone

had + been + \[{{V}_{1}}\] + ing

Future

Tense

will / shall + \[{{V}_{1}}\]? will go

will be / shall be + ing, will be going

will / shall + have + \[{{V}_{1}}\]? will have gone

will / shall + have been + \[{{V}_{1}}\] + ing will have going

 

Verb ?Write? - Passive Voice

 

Tense

Simple

Continuos

Perfect

P. Continuos

Present

Tense

is, am, are + \[{{V}_{1}}\]

is, am, are + being  + \[{{V}_{3}}\] being written

has / have + been + \[{{V}_{2}}\] has been written

 

Past

Tense

was / were + \[{{V}_{3}}\]? was written

was / were + being + \[{{V}_{3}}\]? was being written

had + been + \[{{V}_{3}}\] had been written

 

Future

Tense

will / shall + be + \[{{V}_{3}}\] will be written

 

will / shall + have + \[{{V}_{3}}\]? will have written

 

 

3. May stand alone or used with main verb

4. Changing form according to the number and person of the subject

5. Help the main verb to convey the different types of actions

 

MODAL AUXILIARIES:

1. Don?t have ? ?ing? form

2. Form questions and negatives

3. Never stand alone, always used with main verb

4. Express a wide variety of meanings

5. Their form remains unchanged in spite of number and person of subject

 

 

4. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

 

Look at the sentence given below:

 

1. A letter was written by Aditi.

[Focus: A letter (Passive)]

The passive voice occurs in both spoken and written English and it is used very frequently in technical writing. Most verbs that take an object can be used in the Passive Voice. In sentences in the Active Voice, the primary focus is on the subject. To give primary focus to the object of the sentence, the sentence can be changed to the Passive Voice.

 

COMPARE:

1.            (a) Somebody closed the door.

(b) The door was closed by somebody.

2.            (a) The maid cleans the house daily.

(b) The house is cleaned daily by the maid.

 

 

S. NO.

Modal

Usage

1.      

Shall

Futurity, suggestion, insistence

2.      

Should

Obligation, advisability, necessity

3.      

Will

Willingness, prediction, request (inquestion)

4.      

Would

Willingness, past habit, probability, wish

5.      

May

Purpose, permission, possibility

6.      

Might

Possibility, permission, concession

7.      

Can

Ability, permission,  possibility, request

8.      

Could

Ability, very polite request, possibility

9.      

Must

Compulsion, obligation, prohibition

10.   

Need

Necessity, obligation

11.   

Dare

To venture or have courage

12.   

Ought to

Expection, advice

13.   

Used to

Past habit, existence of something in past

 

ESSENTIALS OF PASSIVE VOICE:

(a) Some forms of the verb ?be?:

 

 

(b) Past participle form (V3) of the main verb.

(c) Helping verb is placed before main verb.

(d) Interchange subject object.  (Someone/somebody/something/people, etc)

(e) ?By? or some other preposition is placed before the subject (doer/agent) in the Active voice.

 

 

5. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

 

A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

 

1.            Often, by what is called the ?Error of Proximity?, the verb is to agree m number with a noun near it instead of its proper subject:

(a) The quality of the mangoes is not good.

(b) His knowledge of Indian Vernaculars is far beyond the common.

 

2.            Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by and require a plural verb:

(a) Gold and Silver are precious metals.

(b) He and I were playing.

But if the nouns suggest one idea, or refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular:

(a) Bread and butter is his only food.

(b) The novelist and poet is dead.

 

3.            Words joined to a singular subject by ?with, as well as?, etc., are parenthetical. The verb should be put in the singular:

(a) The house, with its contents, was insured.

(b) Justice, as well as mercy, allows it.

 

4.            Two or more singular subjects connected by ?or? or ?nor? require a singular verb:

(a) No nook or corner was left unexplored.

(b) Either the cat or the dog has been here.

 

But when one of the subjects joined by 'or' or ?nor? is plural, the verb must be plural, and the plural subject should be placed nearest to the verb:

(a) Neither the chairman nor the directors are present.

 

5.            When the subjects joined by ?or? or ?nor? are of different persons, the verb agrees with nearest:

(a) Either he or I am mistaken.

(b) Neither you nor he is to be blamed.

 

6.            Either, neither, each, everyone, many must be followed by a singular verb:

(a) Many a man has done so

(b) All of the prison is full.

(c) Each of these substances is found in India.

(d) Neither of the two men was strong.

 

7.            Two nouns qualified by 'each' or 'every' require a singular verb:

(a) Every girl was given a packet of sweets.

 

8.            Some nouns which are plural in form, but singular in meaning take a singular verb:

(a) The news is true.

(b) The wages of sin is death.

 

9.            ?Pains? and ?means? take either the singular or the plural verb but the construction must be consistent:

(a) Great pains have been taken.

(b) Much pains have been taken.

 

10.          Some nouns which are singular in form, but plural in meaning take a plural verb:

(a) According to the present market rate twelve dozens cost one hundred rupees.

 

11.          ?None?, though properly singular, conunonly takes a plural verb:

(a) None are so deaf as those who will not hear.

 

12.          A collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is thought of as one whole:

(a) The committee has issued its report.

 

13.          When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular:

(a) Ten kilometers is a long walk.

(b) Fifty thousand rupees is a large amount.

 

 

6. NON-INFINITE VERB FORMS

 

Look at the following diagrams:

 

 

Finite verbs agree to the number and person of the subject of a sentence except modal auxiliaries. They act as predicates of sentences. Non-finite verbs cannot by themselves be the predicate of the sentences. They don?t agree to the number and person of the subject of the sentence.

 

Read the following sentences:

(a) I hope to see you soon.

(b) We kept waiting for Jane last night.

(c) I got back my stolen watch.

(d) Having finished her work, the maid left the house.

(e) The teacher didn't let us play in the classroom.

 

The non-finite (a) ?to see? is to - infinitive while ?play? in (b) is base infinitive.

?Waiting? in (b) is gerund. 'Stolen' in (c) is past participle while 'having finished' in (d) is perfect participle forms:

(a) To infinitive: to + \[{{V}_{1}}\]

(b) Bare/plain infinitive: \[{{V}_{1}}\]

(c) Gerund: \[{{V}_{1}}\] + ing

(d) Present participle: \[{{V}_{1}}\]+ ing

(e) Past participle: \[{{V}_{3}}\]

(f) Perfect participle: Having + \[{{V}_{3}}\]

 

7. CONNECTORS

 

Connectors are the words that are used to join or connect single words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Words such as and, but, or, so, yet, still are connectors. For example-

Slow and steady wins the race.

He is rich but unhappy.

Words like- while, whereas, either, neither, though, therefore, both, only, although also come in this category.

 

8. PHRASES

 

A phrase is the name given to the structural element and acts as a level between word and clause. A clause consists of phrases and a phrase consists of words irrespective of their number. A single word acts as the essential element within the phrase. We can call it the head word of the phrase.

 

Look at the following sentences:

All alone in his study, my father was reading a new book quite slowly. It consists of six phrases:

(i) The noun phrase - my father, a new book

(ii) The verb phrase - was reading

(iii) The adjective phrase - all alone

(iv) The adverb phrase - quite slowly

(v) The prepositional phrase - in his study

 

CLAUSE

 

A clause is a group of words that forms a part of a sentence and has a subject and a predicate of its own.

A subordinate clause does the work of a noun, an adjective or an adverb. So, according to its function in the sentence, a subordinate clause is classified as:

(i) A noun clause             (ii) An adjective clause     (iii) An adverb clause

 

A.         NOUN PHRASES AND CLAUSES

 

A noun with or without a determiner is called a noun phrase.

The noun clause does the work of a noun. It can function as the subject, object of a verb, complement to a verb/adjective, object of a preposition, in opposition to a noun or pronoun ?it?.

For example:

(a) I know where he lives.

(b) Please listen to what I say

(c) That she is angry is true.

Connectives - what, that

 

B.         ADJECTIVE PHRASES AND CLAUSES

 

An adjective is the head-word in an adjective phrase. We can make it a more complex phrase by putting an adverb before the head-word.

For example:

(a) She was very happy

(b) He was extremely overjoyed.

The adjective clause does the work of an adjective describing a noun/pronoun.

For example:

(a) Let me know the time when I can see you.

(b) This is the girl who stood first in the examination.

 

C.         ADVERB PHRASES AND CLAUSES

 

An adverb phrase may contain just one word - an adverb - as its head.

(a) She ran fast.

(b) He walked quickly.

We can put other words - adverbs - before the head word.

For example:

(a) She ran very fast.

(b) He walked quite quickly.

 

 

9. INDIRECT SPEECH

 

What is actually spoken by a person is direct speech. When it is reported later by someone else it becomes indirect speech.

The following changes take place while changing direct into indirect speech.

 

(i) Form of the reporting verb

(ii) Conjunction to replace quotation marks

(iii) Changes writing reported speech

 

Note:

(i) Reported speech is changed to a noun clause with a full stop at its end. Question mark (?) and sign of exclamation (!) are deleted.

(ii) The form of reporting verb and conjunction depends on the type of the sentence in the Reported Speech.

 

·                     Examples:

 

 

10. DETERMINERS

 

Determiners signal the coming of a noun, i.e., they are used before a noun or noun equivalent.

They comprise:

(a) Articles - a, an, the

(b) Demonstratives - this, that, these, those

(c) Possessives - my, your, his, her, our, their

(d) Adjectives and pronouns of indefinite number and quantity - some, any, every, each, all, few, many, such, both, enough, one, two, three, etc.

 

 

11. PRONOUN

 

A pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun. The pronouns which stand for names of person or things are called personal pronouns.

Demonstrative pronouns: This, that, these, those

Distributive pronouns: Each, every, either, neither, everyone, nobody, etc.

Reciprocal pronouns: Each, other, one another

Relative pronouns: Who, which, whose, that

Interrogative pronouns: Who, whom, whose, which, what

Indefinite pronouns: Some, many, any, all, someone, somebody, etc.

 

 

12. PREPOSITIONS

 

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or noun phrase. It shows the relationship between the noun or noun phrase and other words in the sentence.

For example:

(a) I read it for an hour.

(b) He was waiting at the cross-roads.

           

 

 

13. COMPARISON

 

We can show comparison by changing the form of adjectives. Adjectives have special forms for comparisons. When two parts are compared to an equal degree it is called the positive degree.

For example:

(a) Anny's house is as spacious as mine.

(b) Jack is as tall as Simon.

When two parts are compared to an unequal degree, it is called the comparative degree. Comparatives can be formed in two ways:

 

(i)         By adding ?er? to short adjectives:

Easy \[\xrightarrow{{}}\]Easier

Nice \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] Nicer

 

(ii)         By placing more/less in front of long adjectives:

Difficult \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] More difficult

Honest \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] More honest

When three or more parts are compared to an unequal degree it is known as superlative degree. This reveals selection of one against all the others. Superlatives are formed by:

 

(i)         Adding ?est? to short adjectives:

Easy \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] Easiest

Nice \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] Nicest

 

(ii)         Adding most/least to long adjectives:

Difficult \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] Most difficult

Honest \[\xrightarrow{{}}\] Most honest

 

Other Topics

Notes - Grammar (All Topics)
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