10th Class English Inferring Information Inferring Information

Inferring Information

Category : 10th Class Inferring Information

Introduction: This segment deals with understanding and reasoning using concepts framed in words. It aims at evaluating ability to think constructively, rather than at simple fluency or vocabulary recognition. This kind of reasoning test of intelligence provides an assessment of an individual's ability to think, reason and solve problems in different ways. Ascertain the correct option in the questions based on the test of blood relation. A is the son of C; C and Q are sisters; Z is the mother of Q and P is the son of Z. Which of the following statements is true?

(a) P and A are cousins

(b) P is the maternal uncle of A

(c) Q is the maternal grandfather of A

(d) C and P are sisters

Explanation: (B)

C and Q are sisters and A is the son of C. Hence, C is the mother Of A or Z is the mother Q. Hence, Z is the maternal grandmother of A. P is the son Of Z. Hence, P is the maternal uncle of A. M is the father of N who is the son of V. In order to know the relation of M to P, which of the statement/statements is/are necessary?

I.  P is the brother of V.

II. The daughter of N is the granddaughter of V.

(a) Only I

(b) Only II

(c) Either l or II

(d) Both I and II

(e) None of these

Explanation: (A)

M is the father of N and N is the son of V. Hence, V is the mother of N. From (I), P is the brother of V. Therefore, M is the brother-in-law of P because V is the wife of M. From (II), the daughter of N, is the granddaughter of V. From this we do not get any relation of M to P. Introducing a man, a woman said, "He is the only son of the mother of my mother." How is the woman related to the man?

(a) Mother

(b) Sister

(c) Niece

(d) Maternal aunt

(e) None of these

Explanation: (c)

The man is the only son of the mother of the woman. Hence, the man is the maternal uncle of the woman. So, the woman is the niece of the man. Pointing to a girl Sandeep said, "She is the daughter of the only sister of my father." How is Sandeep related to the girl?

(a) Uncle

(b) Cousin

(c) Father

(d) Grandfather

(e) None of these

Explanation: (B)

The girl is the daughter of the sister of Sandeep's father. Hence, the girl is the cousin or Sandeep is the cousin of the girl. If M x N means M is the daughter of N; M + N means M is the father of N; M % N means M is the mother of N and M " N means M is the brother of N then P % Q + R" T x K indicates which relation of P to K?

(a) Daughter-in-law

(b) Sister-in-law

(c) Aunt

(d) None of these

(e) None of these

Explanation: (D)

P % Q P is the mother of Q

Q + R Q is the father of R

R"T is the brother of T

Hence, Q is the father of T

T x K T is the daughter of K

Hence, Q is the husband of K.

Therefore, P is the mother-in-law of K. If P + Q means P is the brother of Q; P x Q means P is the father of Q and P " Q means P is the sister of Q, which of the following relations shows that 1 is the niece of K?

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) None of these

Explanation: (B)

K + Y '! K is the brother of Y

Y x l' ! Y is the father of l

Hence, '! K is the uncle of I

and I" Z' ! I is the sister of Z

Hence, '! I is the niece of K.

In each of the questions there are given two statements I and II. These statements may be either independent causes or may be effects of independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements may be the effect of the other statements. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choice correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements. Statements:

I. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.

II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.

(a) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.

(b) Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.

(c) Both the statements I and II are independent causes.

(d) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.

(e) Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Explanation: (b)

The parents' protest against high fees being charged by the institutions led the government to interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level. Statements:

I.   Majority of the students in the college expressed their opinion against the college authority's decision to break away from the university and become autonomous.

II. The university authorities have expressed their inability to provide grants to its constituent colleges.

(a) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.

(b) Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.

(c) Both the statements I and II are independent causes.

(d) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes,

(e) Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Explanation: (b)

Clearly, the university's decision to refuse grant to the colleges must have triggered the college authority to become autonomous. Statements:

I.   The literacy rate in the district has been increasing for the last four years.

II. The district administration has conducted extensive training programme for the workers involved in the literacy drive.

(a) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect,

(b) Statement II is the cause and statement 1 is its effect.

(c) Both the statements I and II are independent causes.

(d) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.

(e) Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Explanation: (b)

Clearly, the increase in the literacy rate may be attributed directly to the stringent efforts of the district administration in this direction.

Each problem consists of three statements. Based on the first two statements, the third statement may be true, false, or uncertain. Choose the correct answer. If the first two statements are true, the third statement is:

I.   Tanya is older than Eric.

II.  Cliff is older than Tanya.

III. Eric is older than Cliff.

(a) True

(b) False

(c) Uncertain

(d) All of these

(e) None of these

Explanation: (B)

Because the first two statements are true, Eric is the youngest of the three, so the third statement must be false. If the first two statements are true, the third statement is:

I.   All the trees in the park are flowering trees.

II. Some of the trees in the park are dogwoods.

III. All dogwoods in the park are flowering trees.

(a) True

(b) False

(c) Uncertain

(d) All of these

(e) None of these

Explanation: (A)

All of the trees in the park are flowering trees. So, all dogwoods in the park are flowering trees. If the first two statements are true, the third statement is: 2

I.  Maria runs faster than Gail.

II. Lily runs faster than Maria.

III. Gail runs faster than Lily.

(a) True

(b) False

(c) Uncertain

(d) All of these

(e) None of these

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