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10th Class Science Sources of Energy Biogas Plant

Biogas Plant

Category : 10th Class

*       Biogas Plant

 

Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material and -more problematic- energy crops. Biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide, moisture and siloxanes.

 

The gases methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in anaerobic digesters, where it is typically used in a gas engine to convert the energy of the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles. Biogas can be produced utilizing anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. During the process, an air-tight tank transforms biomass waste into methane producing renewable energy that can be used for heating, electricity, and many other operations, which can use any variation of an internal combustion engine. The composition of biogas varies, depending upon the origin of the anaerobic digestion process. Landfill gas typically has methane concentrations around 50%. Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce biogas with 55-75%\[C{{H}_{4}}\], which for reactors, with free liquids, can be increased to 80-90% methane.

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