Nuclear Energy

Category : 10th Class

*     Nuclear Energy

 

Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles inside an atomic nucleus. The nuclear particles are bound together by the strong nuclear force. Weak nuclear forces, provide the potential energy for certain kinds of radioactive decay, such as beta decay. Nuclear particles like protons and neutrons are not destroyed in fission and fusion processes, but collections of them have less mass than if they were individually free, and this mass difference is liberated as heat and radiation in nuclear reactions. The energy from the Sun is an example of this form of energy conversion. In the Sun, the process of hydrogen fusion converts about 4 million tones of solar matter per second into electromagnetic energy, which is radiated into space. Nuclear power provides about 6% of the world's energy and 13-14% of the world's electricity. Nuclear fusion reactions have the potential to be safer and generate less radioactive waste than fission.

 

 

These reactions appear potentially viable, though technically quite difficult and have yet to be created on a scale that could be used in a functional power plant. Fusion power has been under intense theoretical and experimental investigation since the 1950s. Nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom, typically via nuclear fission.

Disposal of nuclear waste is often said to be the Achilles' heel of the industry. Presently, waste is mainly stored at individual reactor sites and there are over 430 locations around the world where radioactive material continues to accumulate. Experts agree that centralized underground repositories which are well-managed, guarded, and monitored, would be a vast improvement. There is an "international consensus on the advisability of storing nuclear waste in deep underground repositories", but no country in the world has yet opened such a site.

 

 

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       Which one among the following is a non renewable sources of energy?

(a) Wind Energy

(b) Solar Energy

(c) Biomass

(d) Petrol

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (d)

 

 

         Which among the fuel given in options has highest calorific value?

(a) Hydrogen

(b) LPG          

(c) Petrol

(d) Wood

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (a)

 

 

         Which among the following is a nuclear fuel?

(a) H

(b) U           

(c) N 

(d) C

(e) None of these         

 

Answer: (b)

 

 

       The main constituent of petroleum gas is:

(a) Methane

(b) Ethane       

(c) Propane

(d) Butane

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (d)

 

 

         Which country use highest percentage of wind energy for generation of electricity?

(a) Germany

(b) Denmark      

(c) India

(d) Perth

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (b)

 

 

*         Management of natural resources

Natural resources are our real treasure. They are available in abundance to fulfill our needs but not our greed. The careless and unwisely use of natural resources has compelled us to think about the management of natural resources. The natural resources have been decreasing day by day. The loss of natural resources leads to environmental problem. The governments of various countries have made laws to protect the natural resources. But in reality these laws are ineffective.

The management of natural resources is required because resources are not unlimited. The increasing population, industrialization and urbanization put strain on these resources. Therefore, we need to use our resources carefully. The management of natural resources requires a long-term perspective not for the short term gains. We need to manage our resources in such a way so that these resources will last for the generations to come. The resource management should ensure equal distribution of resources without any discrimination on the basis of rich and poor, powerful and influential, etc. Resources should be exploited in such a way so that it must not cause the harm to the environment. The policy of sustainable development should be followed.

 

*       Forest and Our Wild Life

Forest is one of the most important natural resources. It conserves soil, gives us oxygen, prevents flood, attracts rain, provides raw materials to industries and many valuable medicines to us. The most important thing is that it is the dwelling place of many animals as well as humans. Forest is one of the key factors that helps in maintaining the balance in ecological system. It is the good source of fodder for animals. Many animals that live in the forest help to maintain the food web and food chain and thus maintain the balance of life. Rapid industrialization and urbanization cause enough harm to the forests. The Government has been taking corrective measures to conserve the forests but these measures are like few drops in the sea. There is a need to exploit this resource in a controlled way so that a sustainable development can be ensured.

 

*         Sustainable Forest Management

Sustainable forest management means ensuring that forests should be used to fulfill our present needs at the same time it should be available to fulfill the needs of future generations. In other words, we can say that forest management includes the administrative, legal, technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of the conservation and use of forests so that its loss can be prevented. It must ensure the safeguarding and maintaining the forests to maintain the ecological balances.

 

*          Water for All

Water is the basic necessity for all forms of life. This resource is found in abundance on the Earth. It is the renewable resource, but human intervention has changed the availability of water in various regions. The careless and unwisely use of water has caused scarcity of this valuable resource. Many steps have been taken to ensure the water availability in various regions. Dam and water harvesting are such few steps in this regard.

 

*           Dams

Dams are the store house of water. They are useful to us in many ways. They ensure the storage of adequate water not only for the irrigation of crops but also for generating electricity. Water stored in dams can be supplied to distant places through canal systems. For example, the Indira Gandhi Canal that supplies water in the desert region of Rajasthan has brought greenery to many areas in this part. The water supplied through canals is not distributed equally. People who are living close to the source of canal draw more benefit out of it. Therefore, it is necessary that there should be equal distribution of water. The construction of large dams has many side effects. It causes the displacement of a large population. It also leads to deforestation.

 

*        Water harvesting

Rain Water Harvesting is the latest way of saving the valuable resource of water. During rain, water is stored on the ground or under the ground. The stored water is kept for future use. This method is very helpful to replenish the underground water and prevents water scarcity. It is followed in both urban and rural areas. But it is not done on a large scale yet. A lot needs to be done in this regard.

 

 

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       A programme, that has been started to replenish the forests by growing more trees and plants, is called:

(a) Silviculture

(b) Tissue culture

(c) Sericulture

(d) Apiculture

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (a)

 

 

       The Bishnoi community of Rajasthan is associated with the conservation of:

(a) Water resources

(b) Natural resources

(c) Forest and wildlife

(d) Endangered animals

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (C)

 

 

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  • On June 27,1954, the USSRs obninsk nuclear power plant become the first power plant to generate electricity.
  • The sun produces energy by nuclear fission reaction.

 

 

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  • Ability to do the work is called energy.
  • There are various sources of energy.
  • Sun is the ultimate source of energy.
  • We also need to look for new sources of energy to fulfill the increasing requirement of energy.
  • The sources of energy which can be regenerated in a short time are called renewable sources of energy.
  • The sources of energy which cannot be regenerated in a short time is called non renewable sources.

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