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11th Class Biology Nature And Scope Of Biology Chronology of Biological Discoveries

Chronology of Biological Discoveries

Category : 11th Class

460-377 Hippocrates : Used the plants in medicine (Father of B.C. medicine).

384-322 Aristotle : Initiated study of biology  (Father of biology). B.C.

370-285 Theophrastus  : Described 480 kinds of plants in 'Historia

B.C.       Plantarum' (Father of botany) and writer of 'cause of plants'.

1590      Invention of the first microscope by Jenssen  and Zacharis Jenssen                                     

1665      Discovery of the cellular structure (cells) in cork : Robert Hooke described in book 'Micrographia'.   

1675      Anatomia Plantarum : Book by Marcello Malpighi.

1683      Initial separation of bacteria : Antony Von Leeuwenhoek (of Holland) 'animalcules' named.             

1694      Malpighi illustrated stomata and parenchyma.

1694      Camerarius described sexual reproduction of plants and importance of pollination.                           

1727      Stephan Hales discovered idea of manufacture of food by green plants in sunlight. Father of plant physiology.

1753      Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum books (Linnaeus) Carl Van Linnae. Systema Naturae, Binomial nomenclature, father of taxonomy.

1759      C.F. Wolff established embryology, gave 'epigenesis' concept.

1761      Discovery of the sexuality of plants : Joseph Gottleib Koelreuter.

1779      Discovery of photosynthesis : Jan Ingenhousz.

1783      First studies of the biology of flowers : Christian Konard Sprengel.

1790      Metamorphosender pflanzen concept of plant metamorphosis : Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe.

1802      Lamarck and Treviranus proposed the term 'Biology'.

1804      Researches chimiques surla vegetation, discovery of the gaseous exchange of plants : Nicolas Theodore de Saussure.

1809      J.B. Lamarck. Theory of inheritance of acquired characters 'philosophie zoolozique' book, use and disuse concept.

1809      Charles Darwin (England) voyage on 'Beagle' ship, 'origin of species' (1859) book. Theory of natural selection and survival of fittest influenced by Malthus.

1817      P. Caventon, discovery and naming of chlorophyll.

1824      Discovery of endosmosis by H.J. Dutrochet, also suggested that all plants and animals are made of cells.

1828      Brownian movement : Robert Brown.

1830      J.E. Purkinje studied movements and pollination.

1831      'Nucleus' in plant cells : Robert Brown

1835      Nucleolus named by Bowman (1840) and first seen by Fontana (1781) but described by Schleiden M.J. (1835)

1835      Named Sarcode for cell fluid : Dujardin M. J.

1837      Named protoplasm : Purkinje J. E.

1838      T.R. Malthus : Suggested that human population increases much faster than food production.         

1839      G.J. Mulder : Named proteins.

1839      Cell theory by German Scientists M.J. Schleiden  (Botanist) and T. Schwann (Zoologist).

1840      Study of cell division : Hofmeister.

1840      Mineral nutrition of plants, established overthrow of the humus theory : Justus Von Liebig.

1842      R. Mayer : Light energy changed to chemical energy in photosynthesis.

1844      Properties of protoplasm : Hugo Von Mohl.

1845      Law of conservation of energy : Julius Robert Von Mayer.

1846      Plant cells arise from pre-existing cells : K. Nageli.

1851      Discovery of the homologies in plant reproduction : Wilheim Hofmeister.

1854      Thuret observed sexual union in algae Fucus.

1857      George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker published 'Genera Plantarum''.

1858 , 'Omnis cellula e cellula' (cells originate from pre-existing cells) R. Virchow.

1859      C. R. Darwin : Theory of Natural Selection, 'Origin of species'  book.

1861      'Protoplasmic Theory' : Max Schultze.

1862      A. Kolliker introduced the term 'cytoplasm'

1863      Proposition of natural system of classification of angiosperms. George Bentham together with Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.

1864      L. Pasteur : Proposed germ theory of diseases.

1865      'Plastid' name given : E. Haeckel.

1866      Haeckel 'Recapitulation theory, coined the term protista.

1866      G.J. Mendel Austrian monk : Laws of inheritance (Heredity). Father of genetics, worked on pea plant.

1868      T. H. Huxley : Protoplasm as the physical basis of life.

1869      Isolation of nuclein (DNA) from nuclei of pus cells : F. Meischer.                                                         

1870      W. His invented microtome.

1873      E. Strasburger observed cell division and nuclear division.

1875      Hertwig and Van Beneden both described fertilization between sperm and egg nuclei.

1876      Identification of the Anthrax bacillus as a pathogen of cattles : Robert Koch..

1878      J. Lister : obtained pure cultures of bacteria for the first time.                                                                             

1878      W. Kuhne coined the term  'enzymes' for 'ferment' of yeast.

1880      Discovery of mitochondria : A. Kollicker.

1882      'Chromatin' : W. Flemming, described chromosome splitting used the word 'mitosis'.

1883      Schimper named chloroplasts, the special bodies of Sach (1865) and green granules of Comparatti (1791).

1884      E. Strasburger : Observed fertilization and cell division in plants, used terms cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.

1886      John Ray published 'Historia Generalis Plantarum'.

1888      'Chromosome' name W. Weldeyer but first seen by Hofmeister (1848)              

1888      Centrosome and centriole : T. Boveri.

1892      D. Iwanowski (Russian) discovered T.M.V. virus.

1892      A. Weissman (1834–1914) : Theory of germplasm.

1892      D. Hertwig : Published monograph 'The cells and tissues' established 'cytology'.

1893      Astral–rays : Fol.

1894      R. Altmann : Discovered mitochondria described as bioplast.                                                                               

1895      Dixon and Jolly advocated cohesion tension theory for ascent of sap.

1897      'Mitochondrion'  : C. Benda.

1898      E. Buchner named 'Zymase' the enzymes of yeast.

1898      S. G. Nawaschin recorded double fertilization in angiosperms.            

1898      Camilio Golgi discovered golgi apparatus in nerve cell of owl.

1899      Altmann : Introduced term 'nucleic acids' to replace nuclein.

1899      Adolf Engler and K. Prantl published 'Die Naturlichem Pfianzenfamilen system' of plant classification.

1900      Rediscovery of Mendel's laws : Erich Tschermak; Carl Correns and Hugo de Vries.

1901      Die Mutations theory : Studies on Oenothera, theory of mutations– Hugo de Vries (1840–1935).

1901      Jule and Merbeck : Parthenogenesis.

1902      C. E. McClung : Identified sex chromosomes in grasshopper.

1902      'Chromosome theory' : Sutton and Boveri.

1904      Blakeslee : Discovered 'heterothallism' in Mucor.

1905      W. Bateson : Coined the term 'genetics'.

1905      Robert Koch :'Microbiology' term given; gave Koch's postulates for germ theory.

1905      Name 'meiosis' : Farmer and Moore.

1908      Winkler : Apomixis.

1909      W. L. Johansen coined the word 'gene'

1915      R. M. Willstater : Structure of chlorophyll.

1915      Twort and d' Herelle : Bacteriophage.

1920      Garner and Allard : work on Photoperiodism.

1921      C.C. Bridges : Discovered duplication, deficiencies and translocations in chromosomes.

1924      Feulgen and H. Rossenbeck : Staining of DNA in cells.

1924      Oparin : Origin of life, materialistic theory.

1926      T. Svedberg : Invented ultra–centrifuge (Nobel Prize).

1926      Went : Carried out avena curvature test (auxins).

1928      Griffith : Transformation in pneumococcus bacteria.

1929      A. Fleming : Discovered Pencillin antibiotic from Penicillium notatum.

1930      Fuelgen and Behrens : RNA in cells.

1931      Zirnike : Phase contrast microscope.

1931      O.H. Warburg : Respiratory pigments and enzymes (Nobel Prize).

1931      Van Niel : Photosynthesis in sulphur bacteria, photolysis (\[{{O}_{2}}\]origin from water).

1932      Electron microscope : M. Knoll and E. Ruska.

1933      T.H. Morgan was awarded Nobel Prize for development of gene theory, discovered linkage of genes.

1934      Kogl and Haagen Smit isolated IAA from human urine.

1934      John Hutchinson put forward phylogenetic system of plant classification.

1935      James Danielli and H. Davson proposed a molecular model of plasma membrane, showing trilamellar structure.

1935      Tensley : Ecosystem term given.

1935      Crystallization of the tabacco mosaic virus (TMV) :  W.M. Stanley.

1937      Robin Hill : Demonstrated the release of molecular oxygen by illumination of isolated chloroplasts in photosynthesis.

1937      Hans Krebs explained citric acid cycle.

1938      Yabuta and Sumiki : Isolated the first Gibberellin from Gibberella fujikuroi.

1941      Ruben and Kamen : Used \[{{O}^{18}}\] isotopes to prove photolysis of water in photosynthesis.

1944      Beadle and Tatum : One gene one enzyme concept (Neurospora).      

1944      Claude : Microsomes.

1944      Avery, Mcleod, McCarthy proved DNA genetic material.       

1945      S. Waksman : Streptomycin, used term antibiotic (Nobel Prize).          

1945      Porter and Thompson : Endoplasmic reticulum.

1946      J. B. Sumner : Crystalized first enzyme urease.

1946      J. H. Northorp and W. M. Stanley : Enzymes and virus proteins purified.

1946      H.J. Muller : X–ray induced mutations (Nobel Prize).

1946      Lederberg and Tatum : First indication of sexuality in bacteria.

1951      M.H.F. Wilkins : X-ray diffraction studies of DNA.

1952      Hershey and Chase : DNA as infective part of bacteriophage.

1953      H. A. Kreb's : 'Citric acid cycle' (Nobel Prize).

1953      J. D. Waston,, F.H.C. Crick and Wilkins gave DNA model and shared Nobel Prize 1962.      

1953      F. A. Lipman : Coenzyme–A.

1953      Transduction in bacteria : Zinder and Lederberg.

1954      Arnon D. : Photophosphorylation in chloroplast.

1955      Ribosome : G. E. Palade.                         

1955      Christian de Duve discovered lysosomes and coined the term.

1955      Hoagland : Transfer RNA.

1956      S. Ochoa succeeded in invitro synthesis of polyribonucleotides (RNA) Nobel Prize.

1957      Fraenkel Conrat  : RNA as genetic material in TMV (virus) 

1958      Lederberg : Genetic recombination in bacteria, (Nobel Prize).

1959      Arthur Kornberg was awarded Nobel Prize for in vitro synthesis of DNA.

1959      Unit membrane : Robertson.

1959      Butle et al : Phytochrome.

1960      M. Calvin : Carbon fixation cycle (Nobel Prize).

1960      Jacob and Monod : Messenger RNA.

1961      Beevers : Glyoxysomes in plant cells.

1962      Menke : Thylakoid in chloroplasts.

1962      Kendrew and Perutz  : Structure of proteins.

1963      Nass and Nass : DNA in mitochondria.

1963      Saffarman and Morris : Cyanophage virus with DNA.

1964      Osgoods et al : Multistranded chromosomes.

1964      Leninger : Oxysomes in mitochondria.

1964      Yanofsky : 'One cistron one polypeptide theory'.

1964      Park and Biggins isolated quantosomes in the unit membrane of granum disc of chloroplast.

1965      Bernfield and Nirenberg : 'Degeneracy' in genetic code.

1965      F. Jacob and J. Monod  : 'Operon' model (operator, regulator genes) Nobel Prize.

1965      Jacob and Wollman : Episome.

1967      M.D. Hatch and C.R. Slack: Dicarboxylic acid cycle (\[{{C}_{4}}\]cycle).

1968      Tolbert et al : Peroxisomes.

1968      M.W. Nirenberg, H.G. Khorana and R.W. Holley were awarded Nobel Prize jointly for their discovery which led to breaking of genetic code.     

1969      M. Delbruck, A.D. Hershey, S.E. Luria : Virus reproduction (Nobel Prize).

1969      Khorana synthesized 'gene' artificially in test tube, DNA ligase enzyme.

1970      Borlaug : Rust resistant high yield wheat varieties and peace (Nobel Prize).

1970      Crick and Klug : Nucleosome model of DNA.

1970      Dannielli : Test tube synthesis of cell.

1971      E.W. Sutherland : Role of cyclic AMP (Nobel Prize).

1972      R.R. Porter and G. M. Edelman : Chemical nature of antibodies. (Nobel Prize)

1974      A. Claude : Virus in cancer tumour cells, cell centrifugation technique (Nobel Prize).

1974      G.E. Palade : Nobel Prize for ribosome discovery.

1974      C. Duve : Nobel Prize for lysosome discovery.

1975      R. Dulbecco, H.M. Temin, D. Baltimore : Nobel Prize for RNA virus in cancer, and reverse transcriptase for coding DNA from RNA.

1976      Gajduseck and Blumenberg : Nobel Prize for cancer research.

1978      Arber, Smith and Nathans : Nobel Prize for DNA restriction enzymes.

1978      P. Steptoe and R. Edward : Work on 1st test tube baby.

1981      Sperry, Hubel and Weisel : Nobel Prize in medicine.

1982      S. Bergstroem, B. Samueleson and J. Vane : Nobel Prize for Prostoglandins role.

1983      B. McClintock : Nobel Prize for mobile genetic elements (transposons = jumping genes) in maize.

1984        K. J. Niels, G. E. Kochlar and C. Milstein : Nobel Prize for monoclonal antibodies.



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