12th Class Biology Domestication of animals For enhancement of Food production Elephant


Category : 12th Class

Elephants are chiefly found in forests with tall trees where bamboo’s grow in profusion. They have very poor sight but sense of hearing and smell is highly developed.

Feeding : Daily food intake is considerable, but only partially digested and utilization is low. Natural food includes bamboo shoots, leaves and various fruits. Working elephant are fed straw, hay and crushed grain as a supplement.

Breeding : Puberty occurs at between 8 and 12 years. The gestation period is \[2122\] months. The calving interval is 4 years. Elephants may live for up to 90-100 years. Elephants are of two types : African elephants and Indian elephants.


Differences between Indian Elephant and African Elephant



Indian elephant (Elephas maximus)

African elephant (Laxodonta africana)


Physical Features

Small ears, High domed forehead with 2 prominance on top of skull. One process on trunk tip Convex backed. Tusks in males only, not always

Large ears convex sloping forehead.


Mature at

25 years

25 years


Weight at maturity

Male 3000 kg

Male 6000 kg


Geographical distribution

Ceylon, India, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia

East, Central and West Africa



Timber extraction and log moving in forested areas

Very limited. In small area of Zaire, used for timber transport.

Other Topics

Notes - Elephant

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