Basic Properties of Living Organisms
Category : 12th Class
Living beings are called organisms. Living organisms are similar to non-living objects in being ? formed of similar elements which combine in similar way to form similar molecules (called biomolecules in living organisms) and follow similar physical and chemical laws like gravitation, magnetism, action and reaction etc. living organisms show a great biodiversity and are classified into different kingdoms-Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. But all of these share the following properties ?
(1) They have definite organisation.
(2) They always have cellular nature so are either unicellular (e.g. Amoeba, Paramecium etc.) or multicellular (e.g., Hydra, man etc.).
(3) They show co-ordination between different parts of body to maintain homeostasis (constant internal environment) inside the body.
(4) They have the ability of movements and locomotion.
(5) They show metabolic functions in the presence of energy.
(6) These have the ability of intussusceptional (internal) growth and development.
(7) These have specific receptors (e.g., sense organs to receive external and internal stimuli) and specific effectors (e.g., muscles and glands to give specific response).
(8) These have regulatory mechanisms (e.g., nerves and hormonal in animals, and only hormonal in plants) to maintain homeostasis inside the body.
(9) These show adaptations to their environment to increase their chances of survival.
(10) These show variations which help in speciation and evolution.
(11) These have reproductive powers for continuity of their race.
(12) These have definite life span (period from birth to death).
(13) These undergo ageing after adulthood and then natural death.
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