# 2nd Class Mathematics Multiplication Multiplication Division

Multiplication Division

Category : 2nd Class

Multiplication and Division

Multiplication by Repeated Addition

Multiplication is the repeated addition. Multiplication of 5 and 4 is written as$5\times 4=5+5+5+5+=20$. Let's understand this through an example:

Multiplication of two Numbers

The following are the steps for the multiplication of two numbers. For example multiply 12 and 2.

Step I:

Write down the numbers to be multiplied in columns as shown below:

Step II:

Multiply ones as below:

$2\,Ones\times 2=4$

It is written as:

Step III:

Multiply tens as shown below:

$1\,ten\times 2=2\,tens$

Write 2 under tens column.

Therefore, the product of 12 and 2 = 24

Multiplication of Three Numbers

• Example:

$5\times 2\times 4=40$

Trick:

${{1}^{st}}$Multiply any two numbers and then multiply the result with the remaining number.

Now first multiply  and  thus $\times =$and then $\times =$

• Example

A factory produces 15 items in a day. How many items it will produce in a week if Sunday is a holiday?

Trick:

Items produced in a day =15

Items produced in 6 days $=5\times 6=90$items.

Division

Division means equal distribution.

(i) Division is repeated subtraction.

(ii) Division is inverse of multiplication.

(iii) The symbol of division is horizontal line and two dots$(\div )$.

(iv) The number which gets divided is called the DIVIDEND, denoted by capital 'D".

(v) The number which divides the dividend is called the DIVISOR, denoted by’d’.

(vi) The number which tells us how many times the division has been carried out is called the QUOTIENT, denoted by 'Q'.

(vii) The number which is left after the division is called the REMAINDER, denoted by ‘R’.

(viii) The division should be continued till the remainder is either ‘0' or less than the divisor (d).

(ix) A number divided by 1 gives the number itself as the quotient.

(x) A number divided by itself gives 1 as the quotient.

(xi) Zero divided by any number gives 0 as the quotient.

Division by Grouping Equally

• Example:

How much will you get if 12 pencils are equally divided between you and your friend?

By grouping 12 pencils into two equal groups.

Therefore, you get 6 pencils and your friend gets 6 pencils.

Division by Repeated Subtraction

• Example:

$15\div 3=5$

We can divide 15 cakes equally among 3 children by repeated subtraction.

Give 5 cakes to first child. 10 cakes are left.

Give 5 cakes to second child then 5 cakes are left.

Give 5 cakes to third child then, no cake is left.

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