Category : 3rd Class
How Data is Stored in Computer
It would be inconvenient to study, work, cook, sleep, eat and relax, all in the one room of your house. It will be very difficult for you to trace the things which you want and work peacefully. However, a house is divided into different rooms such as the living room, dining room and study room, etc. with each room containing the required things so that it is comfortable for you to live there. In the same way computer uses its memory for storage information. The storage of a computer is divided into many parts that are called partioning of the storage. In the case of RAM, the particular memory location contains the information. The main storage of a computer is partitioned and formatted for making the smallest logical area that are called sectors.
What is a File?
Computer files are the blocks for storage information. Imagine that you have only one notebook for doing homework and class work for all subjects. If you wish to study English notes, you will have to check the whole notebook page-by-page to find what you need. But if you make separate notebooks for class work and homework and separate notebooks for different subjects this job will become very easy. A file may contain text, image, sound, video information. Whereas, a folder- contains many files and another folders. If we consider the notebook is a folder then the English notes is a file and heading of English note may considered as the name of that file.
We know that the application software is used for performing the specific task, such as, MS Word is mainly used for editing text, Ms Excel is mainly used for editing numerical based work and Ms Powerpoint is mainly used for presentation of images. Each of the work done in the application is saved with the type of file in which work has one. For example: Word file is saved with .docx extension with name of that file. Excel file is saved with .xlsx extension along with name of that file and powerpoint file is saved with .pptx extension along with name of that file. Every file can be identified by its extension code to show from which type of application it belongs to.
Files on a computer can be created, moved, modified and deleted. We cannot get back or restore a file, once we delete it from the Recycle Bin.
In other words, a File is the actual space taken by the data on the disk. Information in a computer file can consist of smaller packets of information (often called 'records' or 'lines'). When you save any work done on the computer, it occupies some memory of the computer.
In Windows, a file is symbolized by the following icon:
What is Directory?
Directories are like the drawers of an office table. Files are like the actual things that we keep in the drawers. A directory is also known as a folder. A directory is a location for storing files on your computer. For example, files containing drawings can be put into the Drawing folder, files containing text can be put into the Text folder. Different types of folders are made so that various types of files can be stored in them in an organized manner. We can create folders within a folder. These are called sub-folders. Therefore, a directory allows you to group your files in a meaningful way.
A directory is a logical area on the hard disk or storage where files are kept. Each directory is used to keep one type of file.
Data Measurement System
Suppose you are asked where you live or the name of your friends, you will reply immediately because you remember them and this information is already in your memory. A computer also has a memory which stores a lot of information inside it. A computer stores everything in its storage.
The unit of data measurement is a bit, which can store a value (one) or no-value (zero) thus having a binary nature.
Bit is the smallest measuring unit of computer memory. It means binary digits. Just like we use kilograms and grams to measure weight, the computer's memory is organized as a collection of bytes.
A byte is the basic unit that is used to represent the alphabetic, numeric and alphanumeric data. Byte is a unit of measurement of computer memory. Each number, alphabet or special character takes place of one byte. For example, the name Zacob needs 5 bytes for its storage.
Large amounts of memory are indicated in terms of kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes) and terabytes (1099511627776 & bytes.)
Units to measure memory are given in the following table:
Bit = 0 or 1
Nibble = 4 Bits
1 Byte (b) = 8 Bits
1 Kilobyte (KB) = 1024 B
1 Megabyte (MB) = 1024 KB
1 Gigabyte (GB) = 1024 MB
1 Terabyte (TB) = 1024 GB.
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