3rd Class Science Matter and Materials Matter and Material

Matter and Material

Category : 3rd Class


This lesson will help you to: -

  • learn about different states of matter
  • understand how matter changes from one state to another
  • get a better understanding of materials around us

Everything on Earth is made up of matter. There are three basic states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.



A solid is anything that holds a particular size and shape.

An apple, a block of wood, and a coin are all solids. The only way they can change their shape is by force (for instance, if you bite the apple with your teeth or chop the block of wood with an axe).

The particles in solid are tightly packed and don't make a lot of movements. There is not much free space in between the particles, so there is very little room for the particles to move.




A liquid is anything that has size or volume, but does not have a shape. Liquids must be contained in a cup, bottle, or some container in order to have a shape. Milk, water, and juice are liquids. When you pour milk into a glass, it takes the shape of the glass. If you spill the glass of milk on the floor, it will spread quickly as it takes the shape of the floor.

Particles of liquid are not as close together as particles in a solid, and move around much more freely. They have no regular shape or arrangement and move freely.



Gases are hard to identify because they have no colour, size or shape. When we take deep breath our lungs fill up with air. Air is a combination of many gases.          

The particles in a gas move freely at high speeds. There is a lot of free space in between the particles, and they take the shape of any container.


Matter Changes from One State to Another

  • The process of changing solid into liquid is called melting.
  • The process of changing liquid into gas is called evaporation.                                
  • The process of changing a gas into liquid (e.g., water vapour to water) is called condensation.
  • The process of changing a liquid into solid is called freezing. Ice is frozen water.


Misconcept / Concept

Misconcept: Matter is anything that is hard and can be touched.

Concept: There are three states of matter-solid, liquid and gas. While solids are hard and gases are also matter. Liquids flow, and gases are invisible, yet they are different states of matter.


Shortcut to Problem Solving

  • The three basic properties of matter are volume, mass and shape.
  • All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
  • Volume is the amount of space that matter takes up.
  • Gases do not have a definite shape, mass or volume.
  • Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they do have a definite volume.
  • Solids have a definite shape and volume.


Amazing Facts

  • Hot water freezes quicker than cold water.
  • Liquids, solids and gases are the most common 3 states of matter on Earth, however, much of the matter of universe is in the from of hot plasma.


A Poem on Gas

Air is a gas,

We can’t see it that is true,

But often we feel it

In things that we do,

It keeps up a bubble,

without it to breathe,

We would be in big trouble.

Other Topics

Notes - Matter and Material
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