3rd Class Science Our Environment Environment Atmosphere

Environment Atmosphere

Category : 3rd Class

Environment and Atmosphere



Everything that surrounds us makes our environment. Our environment includes living things like plants and animals and non-living things like air, water, soil, sunlight, weather, seasons, etc. All these are the components of environment



Air is all around us. Moving air is called wind. Air contains water in the form of water vapour. It also contains dust particles, gases like oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.


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Water is very important for life on earth. Rivers, glaciers and lakes are sources of fresh water on earth. Seas and oceans contain salt water.


States of Water

Water occurs in all the three states. Ice is the solid form of water. When ice melts, it changes into liquid form. When water is heated or boiled, it becomes steam. Steam is also called water vapour. Therefore, ice, water and water vapour are the three states of water.


Water Cycle

Water from rivers and ponds goes up as water vapour in day time, when it reaches a great height it forms clouds in the sky. The clouds cannot hold the water inside them. This water falls back to earth as rain. The rain water runs back to fill the rivers and ponds. This is called water cycle.


Water cycle



Our earth is made up of rocks. Rocks are of many kinds and are very useful to us. For example, rocks like marble, granite, sandstone, etc are used to make buildings. Pebbles. which are the small pieces of rocks, are used in making roads, in railway tracks, etc. Some rocks, like diamond, ruby and emerald are used in jewellery.

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Rain, wind and the sunlight are continuously breaking the rocks of earth into smaller and smaller pieces, until they cannot break any further. These very tiny pieces of rocks form the soil on earth.

Soils are of different types. You often visit different places. If you ever observe the soil of the places you visit, you will find that they are of different colours. This is because different types of soils contain different particles. These particles differ in colour and softness. That is why you find some soil hard on touching, some soft. Some may be smooth and some rough.

Do you know that soil also contains air and water? Water trapped in the soil is called moisture.

Soil is useful to us in many ways.


(i) Plants take water from the soil to grow.

(ii) In soil, we grow vegetables and build our homes, roads, schools, etc.

(iii) Soil is also home to many animals, such as earthworms, beetles, and snails.

(iv) We get many valuable minerals from soil. For example, iron, gold, silver, etc.

(v) Soil gives us valuable stones like diamond, ruby, emerald, etc.

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Changes in weather is due to sun, wind and water vapours in the air.


Sunny Days

Morning and evening are cooler because the sun rays are slanting. Noon time is the hottest part of the day.


Windy and Cloudy Days

When wind blows slowly, it is called as a breeze. Strong winds along with rain or shower is called storm. The sun appears to hide on cloudy days. It is cooler on windy and cloudy days, than on sunny days.



Changes in weather after few months are called changing seasons. There are mainly four seasons namely summer, winter, autumn and spring. Summer is the hottest and winter is the coldest time of the year. Leaves fall in autumn. In spring, there are flowers everywhere.


Clean Environment

Our environment consists of atmosphere, water bodies, oceans, forests, lands and mountains. All living beings live in this environment. It is our responsibility to keep our environment clean. Keeping environment clean helps us in living healthy and long life.


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Environment consists of water bodies, forests, land and mountains


Advantages of Clean Environment

If the environment is clean, air will be clean and free from poisonous gases. Inhaling clean air keeps us healthy.                                                            

Clean rivers and other water bodies ensure that we consume clean water. Consuming clean water keeps us healthy.

Preserve natural resources for future generation. For example, using natural resource like petrol carefully will conserve it and thus it will be available for future generation.

Neat and clean surroundings make a place look beautiful.

Natural balance can be maintained by keeping the environment clean.


Causes of Environment Pollution

(i) Cutting trees or deforestation is one of the reasons responsible for polluting the environment. 

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Deforestation pollutes environment


(ii) Burning fossil fuels such as petrol or diesel pollutes the environment.

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Burning petrol or diesel pollutes the environment


(iii) Throwing garbage here and there also pollutes the environment.

(iv) Using plastic bags cause serious health hazards.

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Plastic bag pollute the environment

(v) Disposing chemical wastes in the rivers, pollutes the water bodies and thus causes serious threat to the environment.

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River pollutes with chemical waste


How to Keep Our Environment Clean


  • Use less fossil fuels. Burning of fossil fuels emit fumes that pollutes our For example, burning of petrol or diesel emits fumes that pollute the environment.


  • Always throw garbage in covered dustbin. Garbage should be dumped at proper place. Dumping place should be away from city.


  • Use less or no plastic bags for carrying goods.


  • River pollution is concentrated around urban areas. River pollution is a major environmental problem today. To prevent river pollution, the water bodies should not be connected with dirty drains. This will prevent mixing of dirty water with clean water.


  • Grow plants and trees or afforestation. Trees take in carbon dioxide and emit oxygen into the environment. Thus trees help in keeping the environment clean.


  • Large chimneys should be used in industries. The use of chimneys take the polluting fumes out of the building. Thus, people in the building can be prevented from inhaling the poisonous fumes.


  • Chemical wastage from industries should be disposed in a proper way. Chemical wastage should not be disposed in water bodies. If the chemical wastage is disposed in water bodies, it pollutes the water.

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River polluted with chemical waste



  • Pollution of vehicles should be checked properly at regular intervals.

This will help to ensure clean atmosphere in our surroundings.


Other Topics

Notes - Environment Atmosphere
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