4th Class Computers Fundamentals of Computer Fundamentals of Windows 10

Fundamentals of Windows 10

Category : 4th Class

Fundamentals of Windows 10



Windows 10 is the latest OS version from Microsoft Officially it was released in July and was initially offered free of charge to legitimate users of' Windows 7 and Windows 8. The new version combines features from these two previous versions to suit the users m, a better way for both Desktop/Laptop computers as well as mobile device.

It will certainly be useful to known them in case you want to upgrade from an older systems.


The main requirements are:


  • A processor (CPU) with a clock rate at least 1 GHz.
  • At least 1 to 2 GB of memory (RAM), but Microsoft recommends 4 GB.
  • At least 16 GB space in your hard disk.


The Windows 10 some features are the following:


  • The Windows 10 desktop is simply your operating system main screen.
  • An icon is simply graphic representation of an application or a file,
  • Virtual desktop allows you to have multiple desktop screen.
  • The “Search box” on the Taskbar will allow you to search within your documents and files or on the web for anything you write.
  • The Notification Area is located at the right side of the taskbar. It shows different types of notifications from your computer like your internet connection, or the volume level, date and time etc.


Desktop Screen

When you first switch on your machine, the Windows operating system loads and the first screen which appears is called the Desktop.

Desktop is the main background screen of a computer.

It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. It is like your personal work area. You get a feel of what is inside your computer. Several icons or small pictures are located on the left side of the Desktop. You can use your Desktop for many tasks such as opening programs, copying files, connecting to the internet and so on. Certain icons are a permanent fixture on the desktop. The user can put other icons on the desktop that will quickly access programs or files ? like a shortcut. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. You may have used the Paint icon in your computer lab for drawing pictures. The user interface is the part of the operating system that interacts with the computer user directly, allowing them to control and use programs. The user interface may be graphical with icons and a desktop or textual with a command line. It is very easy to work with Windows because it uses a GUI (Graphical User Interface) and offers graphical icons instead of text and you need not remember any commands.



Step to change Desktop Background in Windows 10:


  1. Click on the Windows button in the lower left of your screen.
  2. Click on Settings in the list on the left.
  3. Click on Personalization.
  4. Click on Background option and it shows you to a list of options a picture, solid colour or slideshow for your background.
  5. And you can also choose your picture, click on one of the option and click Browse to choose one from your computer. Click on whatever photo you want and it will appear as your desktop background.
  6. You can also customize the layout of the photo by choosing “Choose a fit” to choose between fill, fit, stretch, tile or center options for your background.



Icon and Mouse Pointer

Icons are small graphical pictures on the desktop, that you can represent your computer's programs, files and folder most Windows versions will feature different icons on the background. An icon is simply a graphic representation of an application or a file. To open or across an icon, just double click on it.


You can add more icons by following these steps:



  • Right-click on the Desktop background.
  • Choose new and shortcut option.
  • Browse for the application or file you want to create a shortcut it.
  • Assign a name for the shortcut and click finish.


Icons can also be moved around by clicking on them and dragging them to another place in screen.


File Explorer

If you are looking for a specific document, another alternative is to use the File Explorer by clicking on the folder icon on the Taskbar.



Task Bar

The Windows 10 taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen giving the user access to the start menu, as well as the icons of frequently used icon. On the right side, the Taskbar features the notification area which informs the user of different thing?s like the state of internet connection, date and time or the change of the laptop battery



Steps Pin to Taskbar:

  • Right click on the program and select Tin to start option from the list.
  • Now, you can see the program which you select display in taskbar, which is used for “Quick launch”.


Steps unpin to Taskbar:

  • Right click on the program from the taskbar which now you don't want in taskbar list.
  • Select unpin option from the right click option list.


Task View

Task View allows you to quickly move within your open windows and applications. You can access it by clicking the “Task View” buttons from the Taskbar. You can also press and hold the Windows key and then press Tab to achieve the same result. By pressing the Alt + Tab keyboard shortcut also served a similar purpose.




Start Menu

A start menu is simply a helpful user menu. If you are looking for a specific application, you can also open the start menu and click ?All Applications?. This will open an alphabetical list of all the applications installed on your computer.





Search Box

The 'Search Box' on the Taskbar will allow you to search within your documents and files or on the web for anything you write. The initial results will appear within the start menu itself.





Windows calculator is a calculating applications included in all the version of windows. It can be used to perform simple   calculation, scientific calculation and programming calculation.

In Windows 10 the calculator is divided into 4 main parts:


  • Standard Mode
  • Scientific Mode
  • Programmer Mode
  • Converter Mode


How to Start an Application (Paint)


Steps to start the Paint application:


  • Click the Start button on the Taskbar. A menu will appear, showing the options available to you.
  • Stop your mouse cursor on All Apps. This automatically opens up the list of application programs on your computer has,
  • Select Windows Accessories and the options under Windows Accessories will be available to you.
  • Select Paint.



There is another easier way to open Paint (or any other application). You can double-click on the Paint icon, if it is there on the Desktop. This is a shortcut to open an application you want to work with. Well, having opened Paint, let us become familiar with some common items of a window and their functions.


Files and folders

One of the most advantages of operating system is to control file management and organize them in folder and files. Computer is a commonly used tool for file management because it allows you to access different drives. When you open computer?s, File Explorer is the program that allow you to access removable storage such as CD's, DVD's Flash Drive etc. One of most important computer drive (c) is your primary storage for all the programs, folders and files on your system. File explorer is an application that provides detailed information about your files, folder and drives. You can use it to copy, move rename file as well as to see how your files, folder or drives are organised.



File is a set of data which is stored in storage unit in different kinds and extension, Files are the most important sources used on dealing with operating system, each text document, image, video or audio you deal with is a file. The user can deal with it on restoring, modifying, deleting, sharing and printing etc.


File name consists of two parts, the first is- the original name of the tile and the second is called extension which distinguishes file type.



Folder is a place inside a storage device which contains a file or more and also other folder called sub-folders.

The purpose of using folder is an organized process for the storage unit?s contents to reach the required files easily and quickly where operating system allows the user to create several folders with certain names which refers to the folder content.


Steps to create a folders, do the following:


  • Click the mouse in the place where you need to set up folder. Click the right button of the mouse, the context menu appear as found in the following
  • Select the “New” option.
  • And click “folder” option





Steps to "Copy" the folder:             


  • Using the context menu of the folder.
  • Choose copy command.
  • Move to the new place (the same storage unit or the other).
  • Display the context.
  • Choose “Paste” command and then folder is copied.



Steps to change/ Rename the folder name:


  • Use the context menu of the folder.
  • Click “Rename” command.
  • Type the new and click “Rename”.


Steps to delete folder:


  • Using the context menu of the folder.
  • Click delete option.


Any deleted folder or file can move to trash (the basket where deleted, tile- or' folders exist) where it can be restored again or deleted forever.


Example of a file structure



Restoring Files and Folders

If a file or folder has been deleted by mistake and Recycle Bin has not been emptied, then that file or folder can be restored or recovered back.


For this perform the following steps:


  • Double click the Recycle Bin icon on the Windows Desktop.
  • Select that file or folder that you want to restore, right click on mouse button, and click on restore.



Creating Shortcuts to the Desktop

A desktop shortcut, usually represented by an icon, is a small file that points to a program, folder, document, or Internet location. Clicking on a shortcut icon takes you directly to the object to which the shortcut points. Shortcut icons contain a small arrow in their lower-left corner. Shortcuts are merely pointers deleting a shortcut does not delete the item to which the shortcut points.


If the item is located on the Start menu:


  • Click the Start button. The Start menu appears.
  • Click Windows Accessories.
  • Locate the Paint which you will create a shortcut from.
  • Right-click the item. A context menu appears.
  • Click more and select open file location.
  • The open file location Window appears now right click on paint.
  • Click send to and select desktop (create shortcut).
  • Windows 10 creates a shortcut to the item.


If you would like to rename this icon, left click on icon (turns blue), right click and select rename icon. Type in your new name. Now, right click on your desktop and select "arrange icons - by name." This will put everything in order!


Shutting Down Windows


Follow these steps before turning off your computer:


  • Save the running file by opening its quick access bar selecting the save command. After that close your file.
  • Click Start button and select Shut down. Click on Shut down option to shut down Windows.
  • Windows shuts down and displays a message shutting down.



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