## Operation on Numbers: Addition and Subtraction

Category : 4th Class

Operation on Numbers: Addition and Subtraction

Introduction

In our daily life, we come across many activities when we need to apply the method of addition and subtraction. We are aware of numbers and number system. Now we will discuss two simple algebraic operations, that is, addition and subtraction.

Addition

Addition is one of the very common arithmetic operation used in mathematics. Addition is the operation to know the total quantity, when two or more than two quantities are taken together.

•           Example

Add 545641323 and 565655656.

Solution:

Arrange the numbers according to place value chart and add the digits of same column. Terms related to addition

(i)     Addends: The numbers which are added to each other are called addends.

(ii)    Sum: The result of the addition is called sum.

Look at the example given below.

\begin{align} & \,\,\,\,766061\to First\,addend \\ & \underline{+\,586505}\to Second\,addend \\ & \underline{1352566\to }\,Sum \\ \end{align}

•            Example

Add 56 lakhs and 40 lakhs.

Solution:

$56\text{ }lakhs+40\text{ }lakhs=96\text{ }lakhs$

•            Example

Jack makes a set of three numbers$\left\{ \mathbf{2315648},\mathbf{54995331},\mathbf{5499895},\mathbf{6562236} \right\}$.

He added two numbers given in the set and gets the result 61557567. Which numbers did he added

(a) 2315648, 54995331                                       (b) 54995331, 5499895

(c) 5499895, 6562236                                         (d) 54995331, 6562236

(e) None of these

Ans.     (d)

Explanation:

\begin{array}{*{35}{l}} \,\,\,54995331 \\ \begin{align} & \underline{+\,6562236} \\ & 61557567 \\ \end{align} \\ \end{array}

Subtraction

Subtraction is the method by which we know the remaining, after taken away some quantity from a certain quantity.

•            Example

Subtract 2655854 from 6544553,

Solution:

Arrange the digits according to the place value chart and subtract ones from ones, tens from tens and so on as follows:

$-\begin{array}{*{35}{l}} 6544553 \\ \underline{2655854} \\ 3888699 \\ \end{array}$

Terms related to subtraction

(i)     Minuend: The number from which other number is subtracted.

(ii)    Subtrahend: The number which is subtracted from other number.

(iii)   Difference: When a number is subtracted from a greater number, the result is called difference.

Look at the example given below.

\begin{align} & \,\,\,987412\to Minuend \\ & \underline{-158852}\to Subtrahend \\ & \,\underline{\,\,828560}\to Difference \\ \end{align}

•           Example

Subtract 10 lakhs from 2 crores.

Solution:

$2crores=1crores+100lakhs$

$100lakhs-10lakhs=90lakhs$

So, $2\text{ }crores-10\text{ }lakhs=1\text{ }crore+90\text{ }lakhs.$

•          Example

Choose the number from the following that should be subtracted from the sum of 784568 and 784562 such that the difference becomes 784564.

(a) 784566                                                         (b) 784570

(c) 784574                                                         (d) 784578

(e) None of these

Ans.     (a)

Explanation:

$784568+784562=1569130$

$1569130-784564=784566$

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