## Roman Numerals

Category : 4th Class

Roman Numerals

Introduction

The numerals we use is commonly known as Indo-Arabic Numerals. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ______ etc., are example of indo -Arabic numerals in ancient time Romans developed a system of numerations (numbering) which is known as Roman Numerals. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, _______ etc. are example of Roman Numerals.

Roman numerals are formed by using the following symbols:

 Roman Numerals Hindu-Arabic Numeral I 1 V 5 X 10 L 50 C 100 O 500 M 1000

Rules to write Roman Numerals

Rule 1: If a symbol is repeated in a Roman Numeral, the value of the Numeral is obtained by adding the value of the symbols.

•           Example

Find the Hindu-arabic numeral for II and XX.

Solution:

$II=1+1=2,$

$XX=10+10=20$

•          Example

Find the Hindu-arabic numeral for XXX.

Solution:

$XXX=10+10+10=30$

Rule 2: In a Roman numeral, if a symbol at the left have greater value than the symbol at the right, then add the values of these two symbols.

•           Example

Find the value of the roman numerals CL and LX.

Solution:

$CL=100+50=150$

$LX=50+10=60$

•           Example

Find the value of the roman numeral MC.

Solution:

$MC=1000+100=1100$

Rule 3: In a Roman numeral, if a symbol at the right have greater value than the symbol at the left, difference of their value is the resulting value.

•           Example

Find the value of roman numerals CM and XC.

Solution:

$CM=1000-100=900$

$XC=100-10=90$

•           Example

Find the value of roman numeral CD.

Solution:

$CD=500-100=400$

Rule 4: The symbols I, X, C and M can be repeated in a roman numeral whereas V, L and D can not be repeated.

•         Example

Write the correct numeral for roman numeral DCC.

Solution:

$DCC=500+100+100$$=700$

•           Example

Why the roman numeral MLL is not valid?

Solution:

In the numeral the symbol L has been repeated twice. Therefore, MLL is not a valid roman numeral.

Rule 5: When a Roman symbol of smaller value is placed between two symbols of greater value, its value is subtracted from the value of the symbol to its right.

•          Example

Find the value of the roman numeral LIX.

Solution:

$LIX=50+\left( 10-1 \right)=59$

•           Example

Find the value of the roman numeral XIV.

Solution:

$XIV=10+\left( 5-1 \right)=14$

Note: No symbols can be repeated more than three times

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