Logical Reasoning

Category : 4th Class

 

Logical Reasoning

 

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

·      To identify relationships, similarities and difference between shapes and patterns.

·      To recognize visual sequences and relationships between objects and remembering these.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Visual reasoning is the process of manipulating one's mental image of an object to reach a certain conclusion.

 

 

 

 

Types of Questions

 

The chapter includes:

1.    Grouping of figures.

2.    Paper folding and cutting.

3.    Merging and splitting of images.

4.    Finding difference between two images.

5.    Clock wise and anticlock wise rotation of objects.

6.    Tessellation puzzle.

7.    Completion of image.

8.    Corresponding image.

9.    Different sections of image.

10.  Symmetry

11.  Rule detection

 

 

 

 

Paper Folding and Cutting

 

In this type of questions, there are three or four figures given in one line. Each figure followed a pattern. Each figure consists of a dotted line along which it is to be folded and the arrow shows the side which it is to be folded.

 

After folding, the paper is cut or punched and then students have to visualize the correct figure that will be produced when the paper is unfolded.

 

Direction (Example 1): In the following example, a piece of paper is folded and cut and then unfolded. One of the four options resembles the unfolded paper. Select the correct option.

 

 

 

Example 1:

 

(a)                 (b)

(c)                 (d)

 

                Ans.    (b) The punch is made at the corner of the folded paper near me Top of the left end. So, the unfolded paper shows equidistance punches.

 

 

 

 

Merging and Splitting of Images

 

Merging of images: In this segment, there are two different images. The student has to visualize the resulting image which will be produced by merging these two images.                                       .          

 

Direction (Example 2): Two different images Or) and (y) are given which will be merged to form an image which appears in one of the options given below. Identify the correct option.

 

Example 2:

(a)                 (b)

(c)                  (d)

 

Ans.   (b)

                         

 

 

 

 

Splitting of Image

 

In this activity, a student will be given an image which can give two different images after splitting in some particular manner. The student has to identify which two images will appear from the given image.

 

 

Direction (Example 3): Which two images from the Figure (X) will appear after splitting. Choose the correct option.

                                   

(a)     (b)

(c)       (d)        

 

 

 

Tessellation

 

A tessellation is created when a shape is repeated over and over again covering a plane without any gaps or overlaps. Here are examples of

·         A tessellation of triangles:

    

·         A tessellation of squares:

             

 

 

Direction (Example 4): In the below given tessellation, some part is missing. Identify the correct shape which will correctly fit into the missing part.

(a)                     (b)

(c)                      (d)         

 

                  Ans.    (a) Option (a) will be correctly fit into the missing part.

 

 

 

Completion of Image

 

In this type of questions, a particular matrix or a set of figures follows a particular pattern, out of which one part, generally a quarter, is left blank Now, the student has to identify the missing part out of four alternatives that follow the pattern.                                       

 

 

Direction (Example 5): Complete the given figure.

(a)                  (b)

(c)                 (d)

 

Ans.   (d)

           

            Example 6. Complete the given figure.

                            

(a)              (b)

(c)               (d)

 

Ans.   (c)     

Solution: From the given four alternatives, figure (c) will correctly fit into the missing section.

 

 

 

Rule Detection

 

In these type of questions, there is a series of four figures which are related to each other in terms of certain rule. The student has to identify the rule and complete the given series.

 

 

Direction (Example 7): On the basis of the given rule, choose the correct option.

Rule: The inside figure is increasing by its sides.

 

 

(a)            (b)

(c)             (d)

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