4th Class Science Home: Our Family Friends and Neighbours Family and Friends

Family and Friends

Category : 4th Class


This lesson will help you to:—

  • understand the change with time in people residing together.
  • learn and understand about the family tree in today's time.
  • understand the birth of newborn babies.
  • understand the core of mother-child relationship.
  • learn about childless parents and adoption.
  • learn and study how changes in value system leads to changes in the society.
  • understand the meaning and significance of family gatherings and festivals.
  • learn to develop sensitivity towards people who are differently able.
  • study about good and bad touch.


Real Life Examples

  • We can all feel a deep connection with our mother. Some things that we cannot share with our father, we can share with our mother. She is all ears for our problems and always gives the best solution that is best for us.
  • Now we usually see nuclear families only. However, if we go in rural areas, we can still see the concept of joint families where all the members of a family are living together under one roof. They are a true example of the saying- “united we stand. Divided we fall” .The family members share responsibilities and are more sensitive to each other’s needs and demands.



People have to change their home with time.

  • Marriage; Before her marriage a girl lives with her parents, siblings and grandparents. But as she gets married, she has to leave her house to go to her husband's home. Your mother also lived with her parents and siblings before the marriage with your father.
  • Work: Sometimes people have to leave their joint or extended family to go to some other place for work. Also when people get transfer from one place to another during their job, they have to shift their home.
  • Education: For better education also people leave their home.



  • A few years back, the concept of joint families were more prominent in our society. Everyone lived together in one house. This represented love and unity in a family,                                
  • But with time, people now prefer to have smaller families. This concept of nuclear family has only limited members living together in a house. Usually husband-wife and their children make up a nuclear family.



New arrival in the family- New born baby and adoption

  • Babies are a god's gift to complete one's family. Babies come from their mothers. The babies grow inside their mother's body in an organ called womb. The mothers feed their baby, takes good care and protects the baby till they grow up and can look? after themselves.
  • Every child shares a special relationship with their mothers. Mothers can be your friend, guide, teacher, philosopher and your true well-wisher.
  • Like humans, animals such as cats, dogs, cows etc. also give birth to their young ones. Whereas some animals and birds lay eggs'-to produce their young ones.

Example: hens.

  • Although due to some reasons, some parents cannot have babies.
  • But those parents can also extend their family by adopting a child.
  • Adoption is a legal process. The parents who adopt a child are given all the rights to take decisions about the life of the child.



Misconcept: Adoption of a child can be done by anyone.

Concept: Not everyone can adopt a child. Before a child is handed over to the couple, many factors are considered. The couple should be financially sound to take care of the child; the family should accept the child, behaviour and love of the couple towards the child etc. A whole legal procedure is followed before a couple is finally handed the child.

Misconcept: Joint family concept was only prevalent in India.

Concept: In many cultures, such as in those of many of the Asians, middle Easterners, Africans, Europeans, Latin Americans and pacific Islanders, extended families are the basic family unit. Even is western Europe, extended families were also clearly prevalent, England being a rare exception.


  • There are many M60s and child care homes from where a baby can be adopted.


Amazing Facts

  • Touch is the first sense we develop in our mother’s womb, and it is crucial to survival.
  • We never experience a smell the same way twice, since the sensitivity of our nose changes from hour to hour and day to day.
  • A family comprising of only husband, wife and unmarried children who are not of marriageable age is called conjugal family.



  • The term extended family defines a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household.



  • Families are a source of great inspiration and make up the value system of any individual.
  • Family are your first teacher and instils in you good values, manners and etiquettes.
  • Every member of a family is unique on his own.
  • A child learns what he sees in his family. Every member of a family plays a role in developing and creating values in a child. A child picks up both the good and the bad he sees.
  • This change in the value system is also leading to a change in society.
  • We should learn to respect our elders and love younger ones.
  • We must meet our extended families on some occasions for example we meet our extended family members on occasion's like birthdays weddings, birth of new born baby and celebrate them together. We should also celebrate festivals with them like holi, Diwali etc.



  • There are 5 senses that help us connect with the environment.
  • These senses are sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch.
  • But some people who are differently able and cannot hear and see, for them the major sense is touch.
  • One should be sensitive towards such people and not treat them as untouchable. Rather they should be encouraged to use their other senses. We should also be helpful to them.
  • Touch and smell are two most important senses that help us recognize our family members and other people when we have our eyes and ears shut.
  • By touching we can tell whether anything is cold/hot, wet/dry, soft/hard, smooth/rough, sticky/slippery etc.                              
  • Similarly our sense of smell helps us recognize anything from food items to people.
  • A touch can also emote. For example a hug is a gesture of affection; a firm handshake shows reassurance, caress shows love whereas slap is a sign of anger.
  • However some things are not allowed to touch.
  • Some touch is good, while others are bad. Bad touch makes us feel uncomfortable.
  • When a touch makes us uncomfortable, we must immediately distance our self from the person touching us.


Historical Preview

Decades ago in India, when our grandparents were small children, only joint families prevailed. Then the neighborhoods were also like a family. They lived with their extended family and shared a friendly rapport. There was a sense of unity in the family and also among other families that lived in the same village.

Other Topics

Notes - Family and Friends
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