Plant Life - I (Adaptations in Plants)
The bull's horn, acacia tree not only has spines to protect it from grazing animals, but also has swarming ants on it. The ants live in spines and feed on sugar produced by the tree. Any animal which disturbs the ants are vigorously attacked and cannot feed on the tree.
- The process of adjusting to different types of environment is called adaptation.
- The regions in which a living organism lives and dwells is called its habitat.
- The different conditions like type of soil, availability of water, temperature of the place, amount of rain and availability of light.
- Plants of plains have lots of branches and leaves. These can bear heat in the summer. In temperate countries trees shed their leaves in autumn, This helps mem to survive me severe cola in winter.
e.g., Maple tree and Oak tree.
- The plants of hilly areas are tall and straight with needle shaped leaves. These trees bear cones instead of flowers.
e.g., Pine, cedar, spruce, etc.
- Plants growing in hot and damp places have large number of leaves. They remain evergreen and do not shed their leaves.
e.g., Pepper, mango, coconut, neem etc.
- Plants growing in deserts have leaves in the form of spines. These plants synthesise food and store water in their fleshy stem.
- Plants which grow in marshy areas include mangroves. Since the roots are always underwater, there is not enough air for the roots. Breathing roots which grow above the ground help them to take in air.
- Plants which grow in water are called aquatic plants. They can be divided into
(a) Floating plants
(b) Fixed Plants
(c) Submerged or underwater plants.
- Floating plants are small or light with spongy or swollen parts and float freely in water.
e.g., Duckweed, water hyacinth, etc.
- Fixed plants remain fixed to the bottom of the pond. These have long hollow stem and broad leaves.
e.g., Lotus, water lily, etc.
- Submerged plants have narrow leaves with no pores. They breathe through their body surface.
e.g., Vallisnaria, hydrilla.
- Some plants like pitcher plants and venus fly trap feed on trapped insects. They are called insectivorous plants.
- Cereals like rice, wheat, sugar and bamboo belong to the grass family.