4th Class Science Travel and Communication Travel


Category : 4th Class


This lesson will help you to:

  • study about the use of animals for transport.
  • study various modes of transportation.
  • learn and familiarize with different currency notes and coins used across the world.
  • study and learn different land forms, languages, clothing, food habits, and some idea of another country.


Real Life Examples

  • Whenever we have to go in a train, we have to buy tickets well in have to buy tickets well in advance and have to board the train from the station mentioned in the ticket.
  • We can see lot of people and things in the railway station like-coolies, people selling different items, food stalls, book stalls, washer men etc.


Historical preview

  • In the past, pigeons were used as messengers for sending the letters.
  • In the past, currency was not a medium of exchange. In those days, barter system was prevalent wherein goods were exchanged for goods. This system is no longer prevalent.



  • Man has found ways to move around and communicate with each other on the earth as well as space. Going from one place to another was not easy for early man. He used animals to pull carts and sledges or used boats and rafts to cross rivers. All these took a very long time.
  • The three types of transport are- land, air and water.



Different animals are used in different areas depending upon the terrain, utility and convenience to the human beings. They are used to carry both goods and people.

Forests: In forests, elephants are used to carry logs, heavy trees and people.

Deserts; Camel is generally used in deserts. Their main use is to carry people around in the dusty deserts. Camels have the advantage as they can stay without water for days, which is scarce in deserts.

Towns: Tongas are usually found in small towns. These are usually pulled by horses.

Villages: Bullock Carts are used in villages to carry goods and people. These are also used to plough the fields which cannot be done manually. These carts are pulled by cattle.

Hills: In the hilly areas, roads are usually narrow and sloping in nature. For carrying goods and tourists people ponies and mules are helpful.



This is the most common mode of transportation people use in their daily life. We can see various kinds of vehicles on road like cars, buses, rickshaws, cycle, trucks, scooters etc. For moving within the state people prefer road transportation. We can move from one state to another with bus and cars also.



Trains can carry heavy goods and lot of people together for long distances. Trains run on specially made tracks laid down along with fields. Trains are commonly used if one wishes to travel from one state to another. People can board the train and get down from it at railway stations.




Water transport is the earliest form of transportation. It is used for carrying heavy and bulky goods to long distances. It is the cheapest form of transportation.




Airways are the most expensive mode of transport. We can travel really long distances with airplanes. We can go to different countries within few hours.


Misconcept: The value of money in each currency is same.

Concept: The value of money is different for different currencies. 1 Dollar is equal to 62.23 Indian Rupee whereas 1 Pound is equal to 92.34 Indian Rupee.


Amazing Facts

  • The world’s fastest train is the maglev train of Shanghai which can run at a speed of 500 km per hour.
  • Steam engine was invented by Sir George Stephenson in England. It was called Locomotion.
  • In hilly areas, heavy longs of wood are transported by throwing them in the water systems which are carried down by the water current.
  • Paper money was first used in china over 1000 years ago.



  • Currency is something (coins and notes) that is in circulation as a medium of exchange.
  • Every country in the world has its own currency.
  • Currency is usually in the form of coins and bank notes. And various denominations of money are found in each currency.
  • The Indian Rupee (International Currency Code: INR) is the official currency in India. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) controls the issue of the currency. Rs. is the common symbol for INR. One Rupee is equal to 100 paise. The singular for paise is paisa.
  • Some other examples of currency are- dollar, pound, euro, dinar, ruble, rand, taka etc.
  • Each country has its unique design and scripts on the currency.
  • Many countries have their own currency, while some use a shared currency. An example of a shared currency is the Euro used in the European Union by countries such as France, Germany and Spain.
  • The currency of a particular country cannot be used in any other country.
  • The currency most traded around the world is the United States dollar. Other heavily traded currencies include the euro, Japanese yen and pound sterling (British pound).
  • Coins are generally found in smaller denominations whereas notes are usually of higher values.



Coins: Indian Rupee coins in circulation now are 25 paise, 50 paise, 1 Rupee, 2 Rupees, 5 Rupees and 10 Rupees. The old 1 paisa, 2 paise, 5 paise and 10 paise coins are not in circulation anymore.

Notes: Common currency notes are 5 Rupees, 10 Rupees, 20 Rupees, 50 Rupees, 100 Rupees, 500 Rupees and 1000 Rupees. It is difficult to find 1 and 2 rupee notes now.

  • The currency usually has the national symbols and photos of some eminent personalities of the country encrypted on it.
  • Different countries have different national symbols.
  • As we travel around, we get to see different people, savor different food, listen to different languages and experience different cultures.
  • Every country is unique and there uniqueness is what makes them different. Exploring different countries teaches the various aspects of different land forms, cultures, cuisines and the people.
  • Even within a country, diversity in food, culture, clothes, people, languages and landmass can be observed.



Giant Jumbo Jet

One giant Jumbo jet,

Ready for the flight.

One giant jumbo jet,

Doors closed tight.

The engines start a-roaring,

Everything is fine:

Start down the runway

Following a line.

The wings are all a-glow.

Pull back the joystick

And up we go.




National flag

Flag of India

National emblem

National Emblem of India

National emblem

Indian lotus

National fruit


National river


National tree

Indian Banyan

National animal

Royal Bengal Tiger

National aquatic animal

River Dolphin

National bird

Indian peacock

National currency

Indian Rupee


Other Topics

Notes - Travel
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