Analogy and Classification

Category : 5th Class

 

Analogy and Classification

 

 

 

Objectives

 

·                  Students will be able to study the similar patterns.

·                  They will be able to sort out objects on the basis of similarity.

·                  Classification based questions list the abilities of the students to observe the differences and similarities among objects or things.

·                  Students will learn assorting the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality.

 

 

Introduction

 

Analogy

In 'analogy', a pair of figures/letters/words/numbers is provided and a similar relationship is followed by another pair of figures/letters/words/numbers. This is also known as 'Similarity' or 'Matching pairs'.

 

 

 

Types of Analogy

 

 

 

Word Analogy

 

In word analogy, a group of three words is given, followed by four alternatives. The student is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given group of words.

 

Example 1:

Astronomy: Stars:: Geology : ?

(a) Sky                        

(b) Geometry              

(c) Science                  

(d) Earth

 

Ans. (d)

Explanation: Astronomy is the branch of science which deals with celestial objects such as moon, planets, stars, galaxies etc. While Geology is the science which deals with the physical and substance of the earth, their History and the processes which act on them.

 

 

Example 2:

Flower is related to Petal, in the same way as Book is related to.............. ?

(a) Pages

(b) Content

(c) Author

(d) Library

 

Ans. (a)

Explanation: Flower is made of Petals. Similarly, Book is made of Pages.

 

 

 

Letter Analogy

 

In letter analogy, a group of letters is given, followed by four alternatives. The student is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given group of letters.

 

Example 3:

Complete the second pair in the same way as first pair.

AT is to CV, as LR is to

(a) MS                        

(b) NT                         

(c) KQ                         

(d) RL

 

Ans. (b)

Explanation: As,   

 

            Similarly,   

           

            So, NT will complete the second pair.

 

 

Example 4

COME is related to EOMC, in the same way HOME is related to

(a) EMOH                  

(b) IPNF                     

(c) EOMH                   

(d) FNPI

 

Ans. (c)

Explanation: As,   

 

Similarly,

           

So, HOME is related to EOMH.

 

 

Number Analogy

 

In number analogy, a group of numbers is given, followed by four alternatives. The student is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given group of numbers.                       

 

 

Example 5:

63 is related to 3, in the same way as 96 is related to...............?

(a) 15                          

(b) 3                            

(c) 9                            

(d) 5

 

Ans. (d)

Explanation: As,                    \[63=6+3=9\]and \[9\div 3=3\]

Similarly,                                 \[96=9+6=15\]and \[15\div 3=5\]

So, 96 is related to 5.

 

 

 

Mixed Analogy

 

In mixed analogy, a group of combination of numbers/letters/words is given, followed by four alternatives. The student is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given group of combination of numbers/letters/words.

 

 

Example 6:

A: 1:: C : ?

(a) 2                            

(b) 4                            

(c) 6                            

(d) 9

 

Ans. (d)

Explanation: As,       \[A\to {{\left( 1 \right)}^{2}}=\text{ }1\](the positional value of A is 1)

Similarly,                     \[C\text{ }\to {{\left( 3 \right)}^{2}}=\text{ }9\] (the positional value of C is 3).

So, C is related to 9.

 

 

 

Figure Analogy

 

In figure analogy, a group of figures is given, followed by four alternatives. The student is required to choose the alternative, which is similar to the given group of figures.

 

 

Example 7:

Which figure will complete the second pair in the same way as first pair.

(a)             

(b)             

(c)             

(d)

 

Ans. (b)

Explanation: Each one of the upper elements is replaced by an element similar to the lower element(s) and each of the lower elements is replaced by an element similar to the upper element(s).

 

 

 

Classification

 

Classification means 'to assort the items of a given group on the basis of a certain common quality they possess and then spot the stranger or 'odd one out'. These questions are based on words, letters and numerals. In these types of problems, we consider the defining quality of particular things. In these questions, four elements or parts are given, out of which one doesn't belong to the group. You are required to find the 'odd one?.

 

 

Questions on Classification Types

 

These are the types of questions which we shall consider in classification:

 

 

 

Type I: Choosing the Odd Word

 

In these types of problems, some words are given which belong to real world. They have some common features except the odd one. You are required to find the 'odd one out'.

 

 

1. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following questions, four words have been given, out of which three are alike in some manner while the fourth one is different. Choose the odd one.

(a) Sparrow                            (b) Kingfisher              

(c) Nightingale                         (d) Bat

 

Ans. (d)

Explanation: Except Bat, all others are birds.

 

 

2. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following questions, four words have been given, out of which three are alike in some manner while the fourth one is different. Choose the odd one.

(a) Wave                      (b) Current                  

(c) Tide                       (d) Storm

 

Ans. (c)

Explanation: Except Tide, all other terms are related to both air and water. But tide is a regular rise and fall in the level of sea, caused by the attraction of moon and sun.

 

 

3. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following questions, four words have been given, out of which three are alike in some manner while the fourth one is different. Choose the odd one.

(a) Mustard                  (b) Onion                    

(c) Olive                       (d) Sesame

 

Ans. (b)

Explanation: All except onion are used for extracting oil.

 

 

 

Type II: Choosing the Odd Pair of Words

 

In these types of problems, different pairs are classified on the basis of some common features/properties like names, places, uses, situations, origin, etc.

 

 

4. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following questions, four pairs of words are given, out of which three pairs bear a certain common relationship. Choose the pair in which the words are differently related.

(a) Gold : Ornaments             (b) Cloth : Garments

(c) Leather: Footwear              (d) Earthen pots: Clay

 

Ans. (d)

Explanation: Except pair (d), in all other pairs, the first is the raw material which is used to make the second.

 

 

5. DIRECTIONS: In each of the following questions, four pairs of words are given, out of which three pairs bear a certain common relationship. Choose the pair in which the words are differently related.

(a) Petrol: Car                    (b) Ink : Pen

(c) Garbage: Dustbin               (d) Lead: Pencil

 

Ans. (c)

Explanation: Except pair (c), in all other pairs, first is required by the second for its functioning.

 

 

 

Type III: Choosing the Odd Letter/Letters Group

 

In these types of problems, some groups of letters are given. One out of them is different and this is to be chosen by the student as the answer.

 

 

6. DIRECTIONS: Choose the group of letters which is different from others.

(a) H                            (b) Q                           

(c) T                             (d) Z

 

Ans. (b)

Explanation: All other letters except (b), occupy the even-numbered positions m the English alphabets.

 

 

 

Type IV: Choosing the Odd Numbers/Pair of Numbers

 

In these types of problems, certain numbers/pair of numbers are given, out of which except one, all have common characteristics and hence are alike. The 'different one' is to be chosen as the answer.

 

 

7. DIRECTIONS: Choose the one which is different from the rest three.

(a) 57                         (b) 87                          

(c) 131                         (d) 133

 

Ans. (c)

Explanation: Except 131, all other numbers are non-prime (composite) numbers.

 

 

 

Type V: Choosing the odd picture/figure

 

In these types of problems, some groups of pictures/figures is given. One out of them is different and this is to be chosen by the candidate as the answer.

 

Example 8: Choose the one which is different from the others.

(a)       (b)                      

(c)       (d)

 

Ans. (c)

 

Explanation: Except figure (c), in all other figures, the inner design consists of less number of sides than that of the outer design.

Other Topics

Notes - Analogy and Classification
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