**Category : **5th Class

**Problem - Solving**

**Objectives**

· Students will develop the ability to understand what the goal of the problem is and what rules could be applied that represent the key to solving the problem.

· They will develop abstract thinking and creative approach.

**Introduction**

The process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution is called problem solving. It may include mathematical or systematic operations and can be a gauge of an individual's critical thinking skills.

**Four Stages of Problem Solving**

**Stage 1:** Understand and explore the problem;

**Stage 2:** Find a strategy;

**Stage 3:** Use the strategy to solve the problem;

**Stage 4: **Look back and reflect on the solution.

**Example 1:**

Four families P, Q, R and S are living in houses in a row. Q has P and S as neighbours. S has Q and R as heighbours. Who lives next to P?

(a) P (b) Q

(c) R (d) S

**Ans. (b)**

Explanation: The information can be represented as:

So, Q lives next to P.

**DIRECTIONS (Examples 2 & 3):** Read the given information and answer the following questions.

Four friends Ronit, Akhil, Manan and Sanam like to play four different sports namely Hockey, Tennis, Cricket and Football but not in the same order. Ronit likes neither Tennis nor Hockey. Akhil likes to play Cricket. Manan does not like to play Tennis.

**Example 2:**

Which sport is played by Ronit?

(a) Hockey (b) Football

(c) Cricket (d) Tennis

**Example 3:**

Who plays Tennis as it is his favourite sport?

(a) Sanam (b) Manan

(c) Ronit (d) Akhil

**Ans. (Qs. 2-3)**

- (b) Ronit plays Football.
- (a) Tennis is Sanam's favourite sport.

**Explanation****:** The arrangement of four friends is as following:

Friends |
Ronit |
Akhil |
Manan |
Sanam |

Sports |
Football |
Cricket |
Hockey |
Tennis |

**Example 4:**

Four people are standing in a queue outside the ATM for cash withdrawal. The two persons standing at the extreme ends are Ritesh and Abhay. Anisha is front of Abhay. Ritu is standing behind Ritesh.

Counting from the front, at which place is Anisha?

(a) First (b) Second

(c) Third (d) Fourth

**Ans. (a)**

Explanation: The arrangement of four people in a queue is as follows:

\[ATM\]

1 \[\to \] Ritesh

2 \[\to \] Ritu

3 \[\to \] Anisha

4 \[\to \] Abhay

So, Anisha is at third place counting from front.

**DIRECTIONS (Examples 5-8):** Read the information given below carefully and answer the following questions. A, B, C, D, E, F and G are sitting in a row facing north.

A is sitting at the right end and G is sitting at the left end.

F is at the immediate right of E.

Eis4thtotherightofG.

C is the neighbour of B and D.

D is third to the left of A.

**Example 5:**

Who is/are to the left of C?

(a) Only B (b) G, B and D

(c) G and B (d) D, E, F and A

**Ans. (c)**

Explanation:

G and B are to the left of C.

**Example 6:**

Which of the following statements is not true?

(a) A is at one of the ends. (b) E is to the immediate left of D.

(c) G is at one of the ends. (d) F is sitting between E and A.

**Ans. (b)**

Explanation;

Option (b) is not correct as,

E is to the immediate right of D.

**Example 7:**

Who are the neighbours of B?

(a) C and D (b) G and F

(c) C and G (d) C and E

**Ans. (c)**

Explanation:

C and G are the neighbours of B.

**Example 8:**

What is the position of D?

(a) Between B and C (b) Extreme left

(c) Centre (d) Extreme right

**Ans. (c)**

Explanation:

D is in Centre.

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