This lesson will help you to:-
- become aware about the need of being careful while walking, running and doing different activities throughout the day.
- Know about the consequences of doing things carelessly.
- Learn about the importance of first aid for as injured.
- gain knowledge about the first aid given in different situations.
- There are special training courses which train people in first aid.
- Why people wear light colours in summers?
This is because light colours absorb less heat and make us feel cool.
QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW
Your parents and teachers of ten tell you to walk and play carefully. Have you ever thought why do they give you so many instructions while you cross the road or while you play? Well, the answer is in the fact that in our day to day life if we do not perform all the activities carefully we might hurt ourselves. Our elders want us to be away from any danger.
In this chapter we shall learn about the precautions we should take while doing different things so that we do not harm ourselves. We shall also learn about what we should do if someone gets hurt.
The first help that an injured person gets before any medical help reaches is called FIRST AID. The first aid proves to be very helpful to treat a patient or an injured person. In some of the cases it has been proved to be lifesaving.
The motive of giving first aid is:
- To save life of the victim.
- To prevent further harm.
- To provide help for recovery.
SAFETY ON THE ROAD
We should always take care of the following things while we are on the road:
- Never run or play on the road.
- Never catch a moving bus.
- Always check both the sides of the road before crossing it.
- Always cross the road on zebra crossing while you are on foot.
- Never drive your vehicle at a high speed.
In case you see any accident on the road, first of all, the injured person should be given sufficient space to breathe and a crowd should not gather around him. If a person is stuck in his vehicle you should try to bring him out with the help of other people around. Try to shift the injured person to a safe place like on one side of the road. Do not try to move the injured person much as there might be some serious internal injuries. You should call the ambulance and should tell them about the location of the accident and the number of people injured.
Safety in and outside the home:
1. Electric shock: We use different types of electrical instruments such as iron, refrigerator and television. A person can get electric shock if there is a fault in the appliance or the appliance is not used properly. The current which passes through the body can cause serious damage to the internal organs of the body.
Safety measurements -while using electricity:
- Never touch any electric switch or instrument with wet hands.
- Always wear your footwear while using electricity.
- Never touch bare wires.
- Do not hang wet clothes etc., on electricity wires.
- While repairing electric meter or fuse etc., always switch off the main supply.
- Replace the sparking switches with new ones.
- Never put your fingers in any electric outlet.
- Never mix electricity with water.
- Do not place any electrical instrument such as dryer or radio near water tub or shower.
- Make a first aid box at your home if there is not any.
- Do not put glass containing water on any electrical instrument. The water can spill out of the glass and can cause electric shock.
- Do not climb on the tress where there are electric wires hanging around. You may get an electric shock if you touch the wire by chance.
- Whenever you need to use any electrical appliance take the help of your elders.
- Shock risk I Whenever you see this sign, do not go near as there is a high risk of electric shock.
- But incase if someone gets an electric shock, the following first aid should be given to the person:
- First of all try to separate the person from source of electricity, but do not touch him. You can do so with the help of a wooden stick.
- If the person is having difficulty in breathing, give the person artificial breathing through mouth.
- Place the person in open air.
- Take him to the doctor.
In case of fire from electric short circuits you
Should call the fire brigades immediately.
2. In the washroom: While going in the washroom make sure you are wearing slippers in a good condition. Never keep the washroom wet as it may become cause of slip. Keep the soap or the bottles in their proper place before leaving the washroom as someone may get slip when they come under their foot.
3. In the kitchen: You should be very careful in the kitchen too.
- Sharp knives should be used with utmost care.
- Do not go near the burning gas or stove.
Sometimes when we touch hot pots we burn our fingers. While burning the crackers and not being careful we can burn our hands. The first aid in case of burns is given as follows:
- Pour cold water on the burnt area.
- Cover the burnt area after applying some ointment meant for burns.
- Sometimes you may get blisters which look like packets of water. You should never burst the blisters as there is very high risk of infection.
You can also get cuts if you use the knife carelessly. While playing also you can get cuts or wounds. While playing you:
- Should never push others.
- Should play carefully.
If by chance you get a wound or cut it should be treated and should not be ignored. If not treated properly the germs can grow over the wound making it worse. It may cause great pain.
First aid for a wound or cut:
- Call an adult.
- First of all clean the dirt from the wound. You can use any antiseptic liquid to clean the wound.
- Apply an antiseptic cream over the wound.
- Cover the wound to keep the dirt away.
- In case of a bleeding cut, wash the area with water and press with cotton. Apply an antiseptic over the cut. You should take the patient to the doctor if the cut is deep or the bleeding does not stop.
Important things your first aid box must contain:
We should keep all the things ready in a box which can be used in the time of need. This box should contain:
1. An antiseptic solution like Dettol. This can be used to wash the wound to remove any dirt.
2. Cotton: To wipe the wounds.
3. Antiseptic creams: To apply on the wounds.
4. Bandages: To cover the wound.
5. Scissors: To cut the bandages.
- Never play with your geometrical instruments or a pointed thing. A compass or a pencil tip can pierce into your eye and can be very dangerous.
The expiry of the things kept in the box should be checked from time to time.
The first aid box should be kept at such a place where it can be located easily when needed.
- If something gets into your eyes, you should immediately splash cold water in your eyes. To avoid this, you should not throw dust at each other. Also you should wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from dirt and sunrays. Never look at the sun directly as it may cause serious damage to your eyes.
- Heat stroke: Sometimes people faint due to hot weather. This is called a heat stroke. To keep yourself safe from a heat stroke:
- Keep on taking liquids at intervals.
- Do not stand in the sun for a long time.
- Wear clothes according to weather.
First aid for heat stroke:
- Make the person sit in the shade.
- Remove excess clothing if there is any.
- Poisoning: If someone swallows poison, it is very important to call for the medical help immediately. In the meanwhile:
- Make the person drink as much water as he can.
- Make him vomit out the water so that the poison also comes out of the body.
- The patient should be immediately taken to the doctor.
To avoid such situations you should:
- Not touch anything, about which you do not know.
- Not take anything inside your mouth, about which you do not know, as it can be injurious for you.
- Drowning: We should also take care of our safety while going into the water. We can do so by:
- Never going near the water alone.
- Not crossing the danger level mark in the pools.
If someone gets drowned in the water, the following first aid should be given to the person:
- Pull the person out of the water by throwing a long stick or a rope towards him.
- Be careful not to get caught by the water flow.
(Children should call the elders immediately).
- Make the person lie on the stomach and press the back carefully so that water comes out.
- Call for a medical help.
- Snake bite: A snake bite is very poisonous. The first aid for a snake bite includes:
- Do not waste any time and try to squeeze out some blood from the bitten place so that the poison comes out.
- Tie a band tightly above the place of snake bite. This helps in stopping the poison from spreading in the, blood.
- Take the patient to the doctor.
- Dog bite: You should never play with stray dogs or cats. A dog bite should not be ignored. There are germs of rabies in the dog's saliva. The first aid for a dog bite is;
- the wound should be cleaned with water and an antiseptic.
- the patient should then be taken to the doctor as a proper medical treatment is needed for this.
- Nose bleed: You must have experienced a nose bleed yourself or must have seen it happening to any other person. In case of a nose bleed keep the head up and sit upright. Sit preferably in a cool place and do not blow your nose.
- Fractures: When we get a crack in any bone we call it a fracture. Usually the fractures are very painful and it takes time for the bone to repair. The common symptoms of a fracture are: swelling of the part, pain, difficulty in moving the part and skin darkening at the place of fracture.
The steps for the first aid of a fracture include:
- Do not try to move the fractured part.
- If the fracture is in the arm, tie a sling to rest the arm in it.
- Take the injured person to the doctor, as there is special treatment for this.
One important thing that we should take care of, is that we should give first aid only if we know how to give it properly.
- The first instance of first aid was recorded in the 11th century when care was provided to pilgrims and knights. There used to be training for the knights to treat their injuries in the battle field.
- A society called ‘’Red Cross’’ was started with a key aim of ‘’aid to sick and wounded solders in the field.’’
Points to Remember
- Never try to remove metal or glass pieces from a wound unless they are superficial.
- Never touch the wound with your bare fingers as it may cause infection.
- Never leave the wound exposed to open air.