6th Class English Analogy and Classification ANALOGY AND CLASSIFICATION

ANALOGY AND CLASSIFICATION

Category : 6th Class

Analogy is a comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification. In verbal analogy question a pair of words/phrases is given. You have to determine the exact relationship among these words/phrases. The relationship is always precise and unambiguous. Then from among the given alternatives you have to choose a pair of words that best exemplifies the relationship of the original pair.

We understand analogy as the act of matching one set of relationships with another set of relationships. For example, the analogy "I feel like fish out of water" means I am out of my comfort zone. Here, I match myself to fish, and water to my current environment.

The purpose of an analogy is to provide insight that would otherwise not be readily or vividly apparent. Saying "I feel like a fish out of water" Succinctly conveys an image and a feeling that may not be easily summarized using direct description. It is most useful when the connection it indicates is unexpected.

The purpose of Classification is to divide into groups based on essential characteristics. A cherry tree and a peach tree have similar flowers and fruit, and so are taxonomically in the rose family. It is most useful in identifying patterns and groupings and most interesting when one is seeking the delineation of boundaries between groups.

In this part, a word and its related word is given, and then another word with four options are given. Such that we have to find out the related word from the option.

E.g.:- Phone: Cellphone :: Computer ::__?__

(a) Speaker                        

(b) Keyboard       

(c) Theatre                         

(d) Laptop

In this (d) Laptop is the answer. Since Cellphone is the derivative of Phone like this Laptop is the derivative of Computer.

'Analogy' means' Similarity'. In this type of questions, two objects related in some way are given and another similar relationship has to be identified.  

 

TYPES OF QUESTIONS:

(i) ____ : ____ :: ____ : ?    

  I            II          III     IV

In this type, objects I and II, related in some way are given and object III is also given. We have to find out object IV from the alternative provided which bears the same relationship with the object III as objects I and II are related.

(ii)           ____ : ____ ::  ? : ?    

I          II        III   IV

In this type, we have to find the pair of objects as objects III & IV which bears the same relationship as objects I & II are related.  

 

ANTONYM RELATIONSHIP

Example 1: Deep : Shallow :: Freedom : ___

(a) Democracy                 

(b) Convict

(c) Prison                            

(d) Discipline

Solution: (c) 'Deep' is the antonym of 'Shallow' while 'Freedom? is the antonym of 'prison'.   

Some more examples are given below:

Best                       :               Worst

Save                      :               Kill

Initial                     :               Final

Lend                     :               Borrow

Import                  :               Export

Zenith                   :               Nadir

Dawn                    :               Dusk

Flood                   :               Famine

Advance              :               Retreat

Cruel                   :               Kind

Ignore                 :               Notice

Create                 :               Destroy

Sink                      :               Float

Mourn               :               Rejoice ? 

 

SYNONYM RELATIONSHIP

Example 2 : Genuine : Authentic :: Mirage : ?

(a) Image                            

(b) Transpiration

(c) Reflection                   

(d) Illusion

Solution: (d)  'Illusion' is the synonym of 'Mirage'.

Some more examples are given below :

Vacant                 :               Empty

Tempest              :               Storm

Admire                 :               Praise

Stable                   :               Rigid

Ban                      :               Prohibition

Dearth                 :               Scarcity

Abduct                :               Kidnap

Blend                    :               Mix

Brim                      :               Edge

Fallacy                   :               Illusion 

 

QUANTITY AND UNIT

Example 3 : Volume : Litre :: Area : ____

(a) Hectare                        

(b) Degree

(c) Radian                           

(d) Newton

Solution: (a) Area   : Hectare 

Some more examples are given below

Force                    :               Newton

Temperature        :               Degree                

Power                   :               Watt                  

Energy                  :               Joule                  

Mass                    :               Kilogram              

Pressure              :               Pascal                

Current               :               Ampere

Time                    :               Second

Angle                  :               Radian

Length                :               Metre

Frequency          :               Hertz

 

INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP/CLASS

Example 4 : Moon : Satellite :: Earth : ?

(a) Sun                                 

(b) Planet

(c) Solar system               

(d) Asteroid

Solution: (b) Moon is a satellite and Earth is a planet.   

Some more examples are given below :

Man                     :               Crowd                  

Flowers                :               Bouquet                

Fish                       :               Shoal

Sheep                  :               Flock

Cattle                    :               Herd

Singer                  :               Chorus

Soldiers                :               Army

Artist                     :               Troupe

 

PRODUCT AND RAW MATERIAL

Example 5 : Candle : Wax :: Paper : ?

(a) Wood                            

(b) Tree

(c) Bamboo       

(d) Pulp

Solution: (d) First is made from the second. ? 

Some more examples are given below :

Metal                   :               Ore

Bread                  :               Flour

Curd                   :               Milk

Wine                   :               Grapes

Butter                 :               Milk

Wall                     :               Brick

Furniture             :               Wood

Pullover               :               Wool

Fabric                 :               Yam

Book                   :               Paper

Cloth                  :               Fibre

Oil                      :               Seed

Shoes                 :               Leather

Metal                  :               Ore

Ketchup             :               Tomato

Marmalade         :               Orange

 

TROPHY AND GAME

Example 6: Wimbledon Trophy : Tennis :: Walker's Cup :?

(a) Hockey                         

(b) Polo

(c) Golf                                

(d) Wrestling

Solution: (c) Walker's Cup : Golf ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Ranji Trophy                      :               Cricket

Dhyan Chand Trophy       :               Hockey

Thomas Cup                    :               Badminton

Uber cup                         :               Badminton

Azlan Shah Trophy           :               Hockey

 

WORKER AND WORKING PLACE

Example 7 : Doctor : Hospital :: Teacher : __

(a) Office                            

(b) School

(c) House                           

(d) Field

Solution: (b) Teacher : School ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Lawyer                 :               Court

Farmer                :               Field

Pilot                     :               Cockpit

Chef                    :               Kitchen

Artist                   :               Theatre

Sailor                   :               Ship

Servant               :               House

Engineer             :               Site

Scientist              :               Laboratory

Clerk                  :               Office

Painter               :               Gallery

Waiter                :               Restaurant

Gambler            :               Casino

 

WORKER AND PRODUCT

Example 8 : Producer : Film :: Author : ___

(a) Food                              

(b) Newspaper

(c) Book                              

(d) Poem

Solution: (c) Author : Book ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Tailor                    :               Dress

Farmer                 :               Crop

Cobbler                :              Shoes

Goldsmith           :               Ornaments

Carpenter           :               Furniture

Editor                  :               Newspaper

Poet                    :               Poem

Chef                    :               Food

 

TOOLAND WORKER

Example 9 : Pen : Author :: Sword : ____

(a) Carpenter                    

(b) Warrior

(c) Tailor                             

(d) Farmer

Solution: (b) Sword : Warrior ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Gun                      :               Soldier

Saw                       :               Carpenter

Harrow                  :               Gardener

Axe                       :               Woodcutter

Chisel                   :               Sculptor

Needle                 :               Tailor

Knife                     :               Chef

Stethoscope        :               Doctor

Plough                  :               Farmer

Anvil                     :               Blacksmith

Brush                   :               Painter

Scissors                :               Barber

Telescope            :               Astronomer

 

ORGAN AND DISEASE

Example 10 : Eye : Myopia :: Teeth : ?

(a) Pyorrhoea                   

(b) Cataract

(c) Trachoma                     

(d) Eczema

Solution: (a) Second is a disease of the first. ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Liver                     :              Jaundice

Eye                      :              Cataract

Kidney                 :              Stone

 

CAPITALAND COUNTRY

Example 11 : Ottawa : Canada :: Canberra : ?

(a) Argentina                    

(b) Switzerland

(c) Sri Lanka      

(d) Australia

Solution: (d) Ottawa is the capital of Canada and Canberra is the capital of Australia. ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Rome                    :               Italy

Muscat                 :               Oman

Lima                     :               Peru

Accra                   :               Ghana

Oslo                     :               Norway

Delhi                    :               India

New York             :               USA

Mexico City         :               Mexico

 

CAUSE AND EFFECT

Example 12 :

Race : Fatigue :: Fast :______

(a) Hunger                        

(b) Sleep

(c) Energy                           

(d) Disease

Solution: (a) Fast: Hunger ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Shoot                  :              Skill

Infection             :               Disease

Food                  :              Energy

 

INSTRUMENT AND MEASUREMENT

Example 13 : Scale : Length :: Odometer : ___

(a) Temperature             

(b) Current

(c) Speed                          

(d) Rain

Solution: (c) Odometer : Speed ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Thermometer   :               Temperature

Hygrometer       :               Humidity

Ammeter            :               Current

Seismograph      :               Earthquake

 

MALE AND FEMALE

Example 14 : Son : Daughter :: Nephew : ____

(a) Girl                                

(b) Lady

(c) Cousin                           

(d) Niece

Solution: (d) Nephew : Niece ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Lion                       :               Lioness

Duck                     :               Drake

Boy                       :               Girl

Dog                      :               Bitch

Bull                      :               Cow

Gentleman          :               Lady

 

STUDY AND TOPIC

Example 15: Virology : Virus :: Entomology ;

(a) Insects                          

(b) Animals

(c) Fungi                           

(d) Fishes

Solution: (a) Entomology: Insects ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Botany                  :              Plants

Zoology                :               Animals

Mycology             :                Fungi

Phycology            :               Algae

Ichthyology         :               Fishes

Histology            :               Tissues

Astronomy          :               Planets

Astrology            :               Future

Taxonomy          :               Classification

Pathology          :               Disease

Haematology     :               Blood

Pedology           :               Soil

Anthropology    :               Man

Cardiology         :               Heart

Palaeography     :               Writings

 

TOOL AND ACTION

Example 16 : Pen : Write :: Gun :_______

(a) Dig                                  

(b) Shoot

(c) Cut                                  

(d) Guard

Solution: (b) Gun : Shoot ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Loudspeaker     :               Amplify

Microscope        :               Magnify

Filter                  :               Purify

Spoon                :               Feed

Sheild                :               Guard

Steering            :               Drive

 

WORD AND INTENSITY

Example 17: Quarrel : War :: Unhappy :____

(a) Happy                           

(b) Sad

(c) Refuse                         

(d) Deny

Solution: (b) Unhappy: Sad ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Crime                    :               Sin

Refuse                  :               Deny

Famous                :               Renowned

Sink                        :               Drown

Wish                      :               Desire

Moist                   :               Drench

 

SYMBOLIC RELATIONSHIP

Example  18 : Redcross : Hospital:: Red : ____

(a) Roses                            

(b) Danger

(c) Blood                             

(d) None of these

Solution: (b) Red: Danger ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Degree                :               Knowledge

Stars                    :               Rank

Mace                   :               Majesty

Black                   :               Sorrow

Green                 :               Clear

Victoria cross      :               Bravery

Crown                :               Monarchy

 

HISTORICAL BUILDINGAND PLACE

Example 19 : Red Fort : Delhi :: Golden Temple:_______

(a) Agra                               

(b) Amritsar

(c) Jama Masjid               

(d) Taj Mahal

Solution: (b) Golden Temple: Amritsar ? 

Some more examples are given below:

Taj Mahal            :               Agra

Qutub Minar      :               Delhi

Rock Garden      :               Chandigarh

Sun Temple        :               Orissa

Jama Masjid       :               Delhi

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