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7th Class English Adjective, Articles, Prepositions, Conjunctions ADJECTIVES/ ARTICLES/ PREPOSITIONS/ CONJUNCTIONS

ADJECTIVES/ ARTICLES/ PREPOSITIONS/ CONJUNCTIONS

Category : 7th Class

ADJECTIVES

             An adjective is a word that describes a noun, giving extra information about it.

             For example:

             a sweet taste

             a red apple

             a technical problem

             an Italian -woman

 

POSITIONS OF ADJECTIVES

Most adjectives can be used in two positions: attributive adjectives occur before the noun they describe while predicative adjectives are used after certain verbs:

             a black cat                              [attributive]

             The cat was black.            [predicative]

 

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Most adjectives have three forms: the positive (e.g. sad), the comparative (e.g. sadder and the superlative [e.g. saddest). The formation of comparative and superlative adjectives (and adverbs) is known as comparison.

 

Gradable and non-gradable adjectives

Most adjectives are gradable. This means that you can modify (strengthen, weaken, or otherwise change) their meanings by placing one or more adverbs in front of them (e.g. a very expensive car).

Non-gradable adjectives are those with meanings which cannot be modified by adverbs (e.g., western electric) Qualitative and classifying adjectives

Adjectives can also be divided into two other types:

  • Qualitative adjectives describe the qualities of someone or something (e.g. tall, long, hot)
  • Classifying adjectives are used to put people or things into categories or classes (e.g. Weekly, northern external)

ARTICLES

An article belongs to the group of words called determiners. There are two types of article: the definite article and the indefinite article.

Articles in English are complicated, and there are many rules for their use. However, learning a few general article about the use of the articles is helpful; the logic of these rules can be transferred to most uses of the article. In addition to learning the rules, you can gain a good working use of the articles through reading and listening.

TABLE OF ARTICLES

Number

Indefinite

Definite

Singular

a/an

the

Plural

nothing

the

Non-Count

nothing

the

 

Quick Hints

             a before consonants (a book)

             an before vowels (an exam)

  • Pronunciation is what matters.

             an hour ('h' is silent and it's pronounced: an our)

  • Temporary illnesses: (I have a headache, a cold, a fever, a backache)
  • "The" with superlative forms (He is the smartest kid I have seen.)

             Some Rules using Articles

Singular count nouns:

  • indefinite: use 'a'
  • definite: use "the"

             My daughter wants to buy a dog this weekend. (Indefinite-Could be any dog)

             The dog in the backyard is very cute. (Definite-The one in the backyard)

             He requested a puppy for his birthday.

             He wanted the puppy he played with at the pet shop.

             She ordered a hamburger without onions.

             Did you drink the coke I just ordered?

 

Plural count nouns:

             Use "the" or Nothing, never 'a'.

             Come and look at the children, (definite)

             Children are always curious, (indefinite)

             She loves flowers, (indefinite)

             The flowers in her garden are beautiful, (definite)

             Do you like reading grammar rules?

             Do you like reading the grammar rules on this page?

 

Non-count nouns:

             Use "the" or nothing.

             He has experience, (if indefinite or mentioned for the first time)

             He has the experience necessary for the job. (if definite or mentioned before)

             The medicine the doctor prescribed had unpleasant side effects.

             Writing in a second language is especially challenging.

             Have you studied the history of South Africa?

             History reminds us that events repeat themselves.

 

Definite Article the Rules

Adjectives as Nouns

             When referring to a group of people by use of an adjective rather than a noun, use "the".

the elderly

the disabled

The unemployed

the rich

the sick

the needy

the homeless

the young

the restless

                            

Names of Countries

             Some countries are preceded by "the", usually if the name is plural, contains an adjective, or includes "of”.

The Republic of Congo

 

The Soviet Union

The Republic of Congo

America

Russia

Spain

Japan

Chine

Mexico

 

Cities and Streets use nothing

Chicago

Fifth Avenue

San Francisco

Highway 5

London

Kennedy blvd.

 

Riders/Oceans, Seas, Groups of Mountains & Islands use "the"

the Amazon

the Atlantic

the Mediterranean

the Cascades

the Hawaiian Islands

the Bahamas

 

Numbers

Cardinal numbers (1, 2, 3) use nothing

World War 2

Page 7

Chapter 1

Mission 1

Paragraph 5

Channel 6

 

Ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, 3rd) use "the"

The Second World War

the seventh page

the first chapter

the first mission

the fifth paragraph

the sixth channel

 

TITLES OF PEOPLE

             When a title is given with a name, use nothing

President Mukharjee

Queen Mary

Professor Arvind

 

 

             When a title is used without a name, use "the"

The president

the queen

the professor

 

 

SCHOOLS

             When a school has “of” in its title, use “the”

The University of Arizona

The University of London

Chapter 2

            

            When a school does not have “of” in its title, use nothing

Lincoln High School

Arizona State University

Liverpool John Moores University

             Location versus Activity

             When referring to an activity, use nothing

             I am going to school now. (activity – study)

             He is always on time for class, (activity-learn)

 

             When referring to the location, use "the"

 

             The meeting is at the school, (location-campus)

             They are remodeling the movie theatre, (location-building)

             The new student had trouble finding the class, (location-classroom)

 

Unique Objects- Use THE

the earth

the human race

the world

the moon

the sun

the universe

 

Part of a larger group, Use THE

             –One of the students  

             –None of the students

             –Both of the students

             –All of the students

 

PREPOSITIONS

             A preposition is a word such as after, in, to, on, and with. Prepositions are usually used in front of nouns or pronouns and they show the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. They describe, for example:

  • the position of something:

Her bag was under the chair.

The dog crawled between us and lay down at our feet.

His flat was over the shop.

  • the time when something happens:

They arrived on Sunday.

The class starts at 9 a.m.

Shortly after their marriage they moved to Colorado.

  • the way in which something is done'.

We went by train.

They stared at each other without speaking.

Some prepositions are made up of more than one word, for example:

They moved here because of the baby.

We sat next to each other.

The hotel is perched on top of a cliff.

 

CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction (also called a connective) is a word such as and, because, but, for, if, or, and when. Conjunctions are used to connect phrases, clauses, and sentences.

There are two main kinds of conjunction.

 

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

             Coordinating conjunctions join items that are of equal importance in a sentence:

             You can have ice cream or strawberries.

             He plays football and cricket.

             The weather was cold but clear.

 

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

             Subordinating conjunctions connect subordinate clauses to the main clause of a sentence:

             I waited at home until she arrived.

             He went to bed because he was tired.

 

Starting a sentence with a conjunction

You might have been taught that it's not good English to start a sentence with a conjunction such as and or but. It's not grammatically incorrect to do so, however, and many respected writers use conjunctions at the start of a sentence to create a dramatic or forceful effect.

             For example:

             What are the government's chances of winning in court? And what are the consequences?

             Beginning a sentence with a conjunction can also be a useful way of conveying surprise:

             And are you really going?

             But didn't she tell you?

             It's best not to overdo it, but there is no reason for completely avoiding the use of conjunctions at the start of sentences.



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