NOUNS/ PRONOUNS/VERBS/ ADVERBS

Category : 7th Class

Nouns

A noun is a word that identifies:

  • a person (woman, boy, doctor, neighbour)
  • a thing (dog, building, tree, country)
  • an idea, quality, or state (truth, danger, birth, happiness).

There are several different types of nouns, which are as follows:

 

COMMON NOUN

A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g., boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness.

 

PROPER NOUN

A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g., Rohit, Africa, Tower Bridge, London, Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.

 

CONCRETE NOUN

A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted. Examples include, dog, building, tree, rain, beach, tune, Tower Bridge.

 

ABSTRACT NOUN

An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and conditions - things that cannot be seen or touched and things which have no physical reality, e.g., truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour.

 

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g., audience, family, government, team, jury. Collective nouns can usually be treated as singular or plural, with either a singular or plural verb. Both the following sentences are grammatically correct:

             The whole family was at the table.

             The whole family were at the table.

A noun may belong to more than one category. For example, happiness is both a common noun and an abstract noun, while Tower Bridge is both a concrete noun and a proper noun.

 

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Nouns can be either countable or uncountable. Countable nouns (or count nouns) are those that refer to something that can be counted. Uncountable nouns (or mass nouns) do not typically refer to things that can be counted and so they do not regularly have a plural form.

PRONOUNS

Pronouns are used in place of a noun that has already been mentioned or that is already known, often to avoid repeating the noun.

For example:

Rita was tired so she went to bed.

Kiran sent the children with him.

Rajat's face was close to mine.

That is a good idea.

Anything might happen.

 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns are used in place of nouns referring to specific people or things, for example /, me, mine, you, yours, his, her, hers, we, they, or them. They can be divided into various different categories according to their role in a sentence, as follows:

  • subjective pronouns
  • objective pronouns
  • possessive pronouns
  • reflexive pronouns

SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS

The personal pronouns /, you, we, he, she, it, we, and they are known as subjective pronouns because they act as the subjects of verbs:

She saw Manjula.

We drove Rakesh home.

I waved at her.

 

OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS                                  

The personal pronouns me, you, us, him, her, it, and them are called objective pronouns because they act as the objects of verbs and prepositions:

Raghav saw her.

Rita drove us home.

She waved at me.

Here's a table setting out the different forms:

 

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

subjective

objective

Subjective

objective

first person

I

me

we

Us

second person

you

you

you

You

third person

he/she/it

him/her/it

they

them

 

Notice that the personal pronouns you and it stay the same, whether they are being used in the subjective or objective roles.

 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

The personal pronouns mine, yours, hers, his, ours, and theirs are known as possessive pronouns: they refer to something owned by the speaker or by someone or something previously mentioned.

For example:

That book is mine.

John's eyes met hers.

Ours is a family farm.

 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

Reflexive personal pronouns include myself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves. These are used to refer back to the subject of the clause in which they are used:

I fell and hurt myself.

Daisy prepared herself for the journey.

The children had to look after themselves.

 

VERBS

A verb describes what a person or thing does or what happens. For example, verbs describe:

an action - run, hit, travel

an event - rain, occur

a situation - be, seem, have

a change - become, grow, develop

The basic form of a verb is known as the infinitive. It's often preceded by the word 'to':

Molly decided to follow him.

He began to run back.

 

Regular and Irregular Verbs

In the context of verbs, we use the term inflection to talk about the process of changing a verb form to show tense, mood, number (i.e., singular or plural), and person (i.e., first person, second person, or third person). This section deals with inflecting verbs to show tenses and participles, and is divided into two main sections:

  • Regular verbs
  • Irregular verbs

 

REGULAR VERBS

Many English verbs are regular, which means that they form their different tenses according to an established pattern. Such verbs work like this:

 

Verb

3rd person singular

3rd person singular

past participle

present participle

present tense

past tense

laugh

he/she laughs

he/she laughed

laughed

laughing

love

he/she loves

he/she loved

loved

loving

boo

he/she boos

he/she booed

booed

booing


Present tense formation

In the present simple tense, the basic form of a regular verb only changes in the 3rd person singular, as follows:

Most verbs just add -s to the basic form (e.g. take/takes, seem/seems, look/looks).

Verbs that end with a vowel other than e add -es (e.g., go/goes, veto/vetoes, do/does).

Verbs that end with -s, -z, -ch, -sh, and -x add -es (e.g. kiss/kisses, fizz/fizzes, punch/punches, wash/washes, mix/mixes).

If the verb ends in a consonant plus -y, change the y to an i before adding -es (e.g. hurry I hurries, clarify/ clarifies). But if the verb ends in a vowel plus -y, just add -s (e.g. play/plays, enjoy/enjoys).

 

Past Tense Formation

Forming the past simple tense of regular verbs is mostly straightforward, and you use the same form for the first, second, and third persons, singular and plural:

If the basic form of the verb ends in a consonant or a vowel other than e, add the letters -ed to the end (e.g. seem/seemed, laugh/laughed, look/looked).

For verbs that end in -e, add -d (e.g. love/loved, recede/receded, hope/hoped).

If the verb ends in a consonant plus -y, change they to an i before adding -ed (e.g. hurry I hurried, clarify/ clarified). But if the verb ends in a vowel plus -y, just add -ed (e.g. play/played, enjoy/enjoyed).

 

Forming participles

             To form the past participle of regular verbs, follow the same rules as for the past simple tense above.

             To make the present participle of regular verbs:

             If the basic form of the verb ends in a consonant or a vowel other than e, add the ending -ing (e.g., laugh/ laughing, boo/booing).

             If the verb ends in e, drop the e before adding -ing (e.g., love/loving, hope/hoping).

             If the basic form ends in y just add -ing (e.g., hurry/hurrying, clarify/clarifying).

 

IRREGULAR VERBS

             There are many irregular verbs that don't follow the normal rules. Here are the forms of some of the most common irregular verbs:

 

Verb

3rd person singular

3rd person

singular

past participle

present participle

present tense

past tense

be

is

was

been

being

begin

begins

began

begun

beginning

bite

bites

bit

bitten

biting

break

breaks

broke

broken

breaking

buy

buys

bought

bought

buying

choose

chooses

chose

chosen

choosing

come

comes

came

come

coming

dig

digs

dug

dug

digging

do

does

did

done

doing

drink

drinks

drank

drunk

drinking

eat

eats

ate

eaten

eating

fall

falls

fell

fallen

falling

feel

feels

felt

felt

feeling

find

finds

found

found

finding

get

gets

got

got

getting

go

goes

went

gone

going

grow

grows

grew

grown

growing

have

has

had

had

having

hide

hides

hid

hidden

hiding

keep

keeps

kept

kept

keeping

know

knows

knew

known

knowing

lay

lays

laid

laid

laying

lead

leads

led

led

leading

leave

leaves

left

left

leaving

lie

lies

lay

lain

lying

lose

loses

lost

lost

losing

make

makes

made

made

making

meet

meets

met

met

meeting

put

puts

put

put

putting

Read/ri:d

reads

read/red

read/red

reading

ride

rides

rode

ridden

riding

ring

rings

rang

rung

ringing

rise

rises

rose

risen

rising

run

runs

ran

run

running

say

says

said

said

saying

see

sees

saw

seen

seeing

sell

sells

sold

sold

selling

set

sets

set

set

setting

sing

sings

sang

sung

singing

sit

sits

sat

sat

sitting

stand

stands

stood

stood

standing

stick

sticks

stuck

stuck

sticking

take

takes

took

taken

taking

teach

teaches

taught

taught

teaching

think

thinks

thought

thought

thinking

wake

wakes

woke

woken

waking

 

Note that sometimes the spelling doesn't change but the pronunciation does (e.g. read).

 

Auxiliary Verbs

             Auxiliary verbs are so called because they help to form the various tenses, moods, and voices of other verbs.

             The principal ones are be, do, and have.

             Be is used with other verbs to form continuous tenses and the passive voice:

             She is reading a magazine.

             We were talking to them for ages.

             England were beaten by Germany in the final.

             Have is used to make perfect tenses:

             The judge had asked her to speak up.

             In two years, we will have established community gardens.

             Do is used:

             For emphasis:

             He did look tired.

 

             To make questions:

             Do you want a coffee?

 

             To form negative statements or questions:

             I don’t like meat.

             Didn't he know how to play football?

 

Modal Verbs

There is a farther set of auxiliary verbs known as modal verbs or modal auxiliary verbs. These combine with other verbs to express necessity, possibility, intention, or ability. The modal auxiliary verbs are must, shall, will, should, would, ought (to), can, could, may, and might. For example:

             You must act promptly.

             Can you speak Spanish?

             I would go if I could afford it.

             He said he might reconsider his decision.

             I ought to visit my family.

             We should get to London before midday.

             May I come in?

 

ADVERBS

             An adverb is a word that's used to give information about a verb, adjective, or other adverb.

             When used with a verb, adverbs can give information about:

             How something happens or is done:

             She stretched lazily.

             He walked slowly.

             The town is easily accessible by road.

             Where something happens:

             I live here.

             She's travelling abroad.

             The children tiptoed upstairs.

             When something happens:

             They visited us yesterday.

             I have to leave soon.

             He still lives in London.

             Adverbs can make the meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb stronger or weaker:

             With a verb:

             I almost fell asleep.

             He really means it.

             With an adjective:

             These schemes are very clever.

             This is a slightly better result.

             With another adverb:

             They nearly always get home late.

             The answer to both questions is really rather simple.

             Adverbs are often found between the subject and its verb:

             She carefully avoided my eye.

             They can also come between an auxiliary verb (such as be or have) and a main verb:

             The concert was suddenly cancelled.

             He had quickly eaten his dinner.

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