Category : 7th Class
The section deals with the problems of Jumbled paragraph and sentences and sentence and phrase arrangement of the given phrases or sentences. The student has to choose a logical sequence to make a meaningful sentence or paragraph. This form of exercise tests the student's ability to
(a) Figure out the logic of the events
(b) Sequence of different parts of a combination according to correct grammatical usage.
In either sentence or paragraph structuring, the student has to check which part follows the other according to the logical theme of the sentence/paragraph.
(a) Phrase arrangement or Jumbled Sentence.
(b) Sentence arrangement or Jumbled Paragraph.
In a jumbled sentence, a sentence is broken into four parts and the student has to figure out, the right sequence to form a logical, sensible sentence. Consider the following example.
P: by her indulgent parents
Q: the child was so spoiled
R: when she did not receive all of their attention
S: that she pouted and became sullen
(a) RQPS (b) QRPS
(c) QPSR (d) QSPR
In this question, a single sentence has been broken into four different parts and the student has to find out the logical sequence of the sentence. In order to do that, consider the following.
Strategy I: Decide on the opening phrase, first. The opening part of the sentence will usually contain the subject of the sentence. So locate the subject and select that part as the first in sequence. Now, select all options in the answer that begin with the part you have chosen as the first.
In example 1, the subject is the child and the opening part will be Q, thus, we can eliminate option (a). Now, since the subject is passive, the verb form will be followed by 'by' and the doer. So, find the second part beginning with by and containing the doer of the action which in this case is P. Thus, we can reach the right answer, option (c).
Strategy II: If the Subject is passive, mostly, the following part will begin with 'by and contain the doer of the action in the sentence.
Unsurpassed power (P)/modern society (Q)/in (R)/ women enjoy (S)
(a) RQPS (b) SRPQ
(c) SPRQ (d) PSRQ
The subject of the sentence is women so the opening part would be S. Thus, we have to choose between options (b) and (c). The subject in this sentence is active. So, we must find the object which will be the next Part. In the given question, the object is unsurpassed power. Thus, the answer is (c).
Strategy III: When the subject is active, follow the sequence- SUBJECT - VERB - OBJECT
Strategy IV: Preposition is never the last part. If a preposition is given as one of the parts match it with other parts to find out what will follow the preposition.
In Example III 'in' could only be followed by Modem society, so the last two parts of the sentence would be (R) and (P).
P: and was at once convinced
Q: he sent a few copies of the book to well-known poets
R: Shaw read the first few lines of the volume and awaited their reaction
S: that what he was reading was real poetry
(a) RPTQS (b) QSTPR
(c) RSPQT (d) QPRST
Now, in the given questions there will appear two subjects 'shaw' in (R) and 'he' in (Q). But he is a pronoun, used to replace the noun, Shaw and thus, will follow the noun in the sentence
Strategy V: If there are noun and pronoun as subjects in the different parts of a sentence, the part with the noun will be the opening part. Thus in example III, the opening part is (R), so we have to choose from Option (a) & (c).
Now, we have to figure out the last part of the sentence. Clearly, the given sentence consists of two parts, one with the subject Shaw and the other with the subject 'he'. The part with the subject 'he' will follow the other so, the predicate of the phrase with the subject 'he' will be the last part of the sentence. Thus, the last part of example III will be (s). The correct answer is (a).
Strategy VI: Predicate is the last part of the sentence.
Now, let us consider Jumbled Paragraphs.
In this type of question, a paragraph will be broken into four or more parts and the students will be asked to find out the right sequence.
P: In emission testing, the govt. fixes the total amount of pollution that is acceptable to maintain a desired level of air quality.
Q: Economists argue this approach makes air pollution control more cost effective than the current practice of fixing air pollution standards and expecting all companies to pollute below these standards.
R: USA uses emission trading to control air pollution.
S: It, then, distributes emission permits to all companies in the region which add up to the overall acceptable level of emission.
(a) RSQP (b) PRQS
(c) QPSR (d) RQPS
Strategy I: Find the opening sentence or the concluding sentence.
In Example IV (R) is the probable opening statement, so we have to choose between (a) & (d).
Strategy II: Sentences with demonstrative pronouns or word like this, that, these or then, moreover, therefore, meanwhile are not opening sentences.
In example, IV we see, Q follows R and S follow P. If (R) is the first statement then Q cannot be the last.
Therefore, S is the concluding statement, so the right answer is (d).
P: In his first inaugural address he concluded with an eloquent plea: "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country".
Q: John F Kennedy, Democratic leader in the elections of 1960 was at 43, the youngest man ever to win the presidency
R: On television, in a series of debates with opponent Richard Nixon, he appeared able, articulate and energetic.
S: In the campaign, he spoke of moving aggressively into the new decade, for "the new Frontier is here whether we seek it or not."
(a) SPQR (b) QRSP
(c) RPQS (d) QPRS
Now, Q will be the opening sentence since all others contain a pronoun and Q contains a noun subject so, we have to choose between (b) & (d).
In (b) R follows Q and in (d) P follows Q but P appears to be a concluding sentence hence, (b) is the right answer.
In this type of jumbled paragraph question, there are six sentences. However, not all six of them are jumbled, the first and the last sentence of the paragraph are given but the included four sentences are jumbled. It is the sequence of these four sentences that the student has to find.
S1The list of horror goes on
S6 Kalyan Banerjee, a consultant at the hospital is worried
(a) DACB (b) CDAB
(c) DBAC (d) CADB
Strategy III: For a six sentence question try to find out a link between the first fixed given sentence and any of the four jumbled sentences that could follow it.
In Example VI A and B can't follow (S1) because they begin with conjunctions while (a) ends without a possibility of a conjunction (c) appears to be the logical sentence following (S1). (A) follows (C) and (B) follows (D). Thus, the sequence will be
S1 CABD S6, which is the option (d). (d) is CADB not CABD.
Strategy IV. If you cannot find a link between the first fixed sentence and the jumbled sentences, find a link between the last fixed sentence and a sentence from the jumbled ones that may proceed from it.
S1 As an economy expands, so does the need for cash or fuel growth.
S6 Thus, new ruling plus many other improvements to protect investors have helped boost confidence in the market.
(a) DCBA (b) ABCD
(c) CDAB (d) DCAB
Now, we can easily see the link between the concluding fixed line S6 and A-the rule. Thus, the last part before (S1) should be A. This, sequence is available only in option (S1) which will be the right answer.
B elaborates the exchange which was already mentioned in C and therefore, must follow (C). So, S1 DCBA S6 is the correct sequence.
Strategy V: If you are unable to find links with either of the fixed sentences, use the previous strategies to find links between the jumbled sentences and check out the sequence in the given options.
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