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7th Class Science Nutrition in Plants and Animals Balanced Food

Balanced Food

Category : 7th Class

*        Balanced Food

 

Balanced food is essential for us. All living organism obtain their energy from the food they take. Therefore, our food should contain all necessary nutrients, that is, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, proteins, roughage, water and minerals. Carbohydrates and fats are energy giving food, proteins are body building food and vitamins and minerals are protective food. Requirement of energy in kilocalories depends on age and working habit.

 

Read the Following about the Energy Requirements

 

Age Daily energy requirement in kilo joule
Up to 8 years 2000 KJ to 9000 KJ
8 to 15 years 9600 KJ to 12600 KJ
Adult 9600 KJ to 20000 KJ
Pregnant and nursing mothers 10000 KJ to 11300 KJ

 

Let us study the nutrients contained by food in detail.  

 

*          Carbohydrates

This is the organic compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The source of energy in our body are carbohydrates and fats. One gram of carbohydrate produces one kilocalories of heat energy. The rich sources of carbohydrates are rice, potato, bread, wheat etc.

               

Look at the following table:

 

Sources of carbohydrates
Wheat flour
Rice
Jowar
Honey
Beans
Green Gram
Banana

 

 

*         Vitamins

Vitamins are organic compound and these are the very important part of human food. The human body requires small amount of vitamins. They protect us from various diseases and repair the damaged cells and tissues. Vitamins have been classified into two groups, fat soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins.

Vitamins A, D, E and K are known as fat soluble vitamins, while vitamins C and eight of vitamin B complex are known as water soluble vitamins.

 

Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Pyridoxine
Pantothenic acid, biotin, folate and cobalamin 

 

 

*          Vitamin A

Vitamin A is the most important part of our daily food. It protects our eyes and gives nutrition for clear vision. The purest form of vitamin A is Retinol. Retinols are stored inside the liver. A healthy body required 600 - 700 microgram of vitamin A per day.

Some Rich Sources of Vitamin A are as Follows

 

 Foods
Carrots (raw)
 Sweet potato
 Mango
 Butter
 Ghee
 Cheese
Eggs

 

 

*         Vitamin C

The chemical name of vitamin C is ascorbic acid and this is a water soluble element. The function of whole body depends on enzymes. Vitamin C gives nutrients to enzyme producing organs. It repairs tissues and strengthens blood vessels. It cannot be stored inside the body therefore, our daily diet should contain vitamin C.

Scurvy is the most common disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Deficiency of vitamin C breaks down the blood vessels and causes bleeding.

               

Read the following Sources of Vitamin C

 

 Foods
 Guava
 Strawberry
 Lemon
 Orange
Cauliflower
 Tomato
 Potato

 

 

*          Vitamin D

Vitamin D is fat soluble element. Deficiency of vitamin D causes improper growth of teeth and bones. Therefore, broken bones cannot be repaired due to lack of vitamin D. The sources of vitamin D are milk, eggs, fish and mushrooms etc. A rich source of vitamin D is Sun.

 

*          Vitamin E

It performs various functions in the human body ,therefore, it is also an important part of our diet. Vitamin E protects nutrients from being damaged by oxygen and hence called anti oxidants.

 

Read the Following Sources of Vitamin E

 

Foods Sunflower Oil Almond Popcorn Sweet Potato

 

 

*         Vitamin K

Vitamin K is the fat soluble element. It is stored in the fats of the human body. Vitamin K is normally produced by the bacteria in the large intestine of the human body. ft is used to make other proteins needed for healthy bones and tissues. It is also helpful for normal blood clotting. The recommended daily amount is 70 micrograms in men and 65 micrograms in women

  

Read the following sources of vitamin K

 

Foods Cauliflower  Tomato Cabbage String Beans

 

 

*         Vitamin B Complex (B12)

Vitamin B complex is the water soluble element and therefore, it cannot be stored inside the human body. Vitamin B performs various functions inside the J human body. It repairs tissues and cells, also supports and increases the rate of metabolism. Vitamin B is responsible for the healthy skin, immune and nerves system of human.

 

Followings are the deficiency effects of vitamin B complex

 

Vitamins and its name  Deficiency Effects (Disease)
Vitamin  (Thiamin) Beriberi
Vitamin  (Riboflavin) Ariboflavinosis
Vitamin  (Niacin) Pellagra
Vitamin  (Pyridoxine) Anemia
Vitamin  (Pantothenic acid, biotin, folate and cobalamin) Anemia

 

 

*          Sources of Vitamin B Complex

All eatable substances contain less or large amount of vitamin B complex. Some food items largely contains vitamins B complex. These food items are fish, fruits, vegetables etc.

 

*          Fats

Fats are the compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are necessary for our body. But the excess amount of fats is not utilized and is stored under skin and around other body organs. The rich sources of fats are oily foods, like ghee, vegetables oil etc.

 

*         

  • Proteins

Proteins are one of the most important elements that are necessary for the growth of the cells. Developing children require more amount of proteins. For the replacement of cells and tissues also, proteins are required. Proteins have big role in fighting with various harmful bacteria. In the human body proteins break down into a substance called amino acid. The rich sources of proteins are both plants and animals. But the food obtained from animals contains more protein than that of plant. A small child requires two grams of protein per day. A healthy man requires 100 grams of proteins per day. The requirement of proteins depends on the weight of the body. The proteins are categorized into two groups, that is, plant protein and animal protein.

 

Read the following sources of proteins

Foods Milk Soya Eggs Fish

 

*           Minerals

Minerals are the inorganic compound and very necessary for human beings. The sources of minerals are the green vegetables, milk, eggs, and fruits.  Minerals provide iron for hemoglobin formation, an important component of blood. There are fifteen kinds of minerals, which human require for healthy body. Calcium and phosphorous provide nutrition to bones and teeth. Some minerals, which are most required by human body, are called major minerals more than 100 mg/day) .And those minerals, which human body require less than 100 mg/day) are called minor minerals or trace elements.

The major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulphur. Minor minerals or trace elements are iron, iodine, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, cobalt, selenium and fluoride.

The deficiency of minerals is due to too much eating or less eating of same things. For example, too much drinking, smoking, etc. are the common cause of mineral deficiency in human body.

 

Read the following sources of minerals

Minerals Sources
Calcium Pulses, Sesame Seeds
Iron Beans Green Vegetable
Magnesium Milk, Banana, Rice
Zinc  Rice, Bread, Meat
Selenium Green Vegetables, Milk, Chicken
Potassium Potatoes, Banana, Green Leaves Vegetable

 

 

*              Roughage

The outer part of fruits contains roughage. Sources of roughage are plants and plant products. It helps in moving the food through elementary canal. As a result better digestion of food takes place. Constipation is due to the deficiency of roughage.

 

*             Water

The human body contains 70% water by weight. Water transports minerals within the body. It helps in controlling the body temperature and improves digestive system.

 

 

common.jpg  

 

     Which one of the following is broken down into amino acid in the digestive system of the human body?

(a) Vitamins

(b) Minerals

(c) Fibers

(d) Proteins

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (d)

 

 

     The names of the vitamins are given below. Which one of the following options is correct about the categorization of vitamins as water and fat soluble elements?

Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K

(a) Water soluble vitamins - Vitamin B, Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins - Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.

(b) Water soluble vitamins - Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K Fat soluble vitamins - Vitamins B, Vitamins C

(c) Water soluble vitamins - Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins - Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin K

(d) Fat soluble vitamins - Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C Water soluble vitamins - Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (a)

 

 

summary.jpg

Photosynthesis process is involved in autotrophic mode of nutrition.

Plant makes glucose or sugar during the photosynthesis.

Plant absorbs carbon dioxide and solar energy through leaves.

Most part of food is absorbed in small intestine.

A liquid secretes by liver is called bile.

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