Category : 7th Class
The day-to –day conditions of the atmosphere at a place with respect to elements like temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc. is called the weather of that place. The atmosphere is all around us-we cannot see it, but it keeps us warm. The sun is responsible for all the changes in the weather. The distance between the sun and us is very large. The sun is the chief source of light and heat for the earth. It is also the Primary source of energy, and causes changes in the weather.
The energy is absorbed and reflected by the earth's surface. The oceans and the atmosphere play an important role in determining the weather at anyplace. Also, gases like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor play a role in determining the weather. The weather in coastal areas is very different than that in a desert or hilly areas the maximum temperature of the day is recorded during the afternoon, while the minimum temperature is recorded early in the morning.
Meteorologists record the weather every day. The records of the weather are preserved for several decades. These records help us determine the pattern of the weather at a place. The average weather pattern taken over a long time, say, 25 years, is called the climate of the place. The mean temperature for a given month is found in two steps. First, we find the average of the temperatures recorded during the month. Next, we calculate the average of such temperatures over many years. The result is the mean temperature.
Do you know?
Role of the Meteorological Department of a Country: The Meteorological department collects data on temperature, wind, etc., and prepares various kinds of weather reports.
Do you know?
Antarctica is the driest continent on Earth.
Climate and Adaptation
Different parts of the earth have different types of climate. The sun is responsible for this difference in climatic conditions.
Five major types of climates are recognized, based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation.
Climate has an intense effect on all living organisms. Animals adapt themselves to survive various conditions in which they live. Animals that live in extreme climates acquire some special features to protect themselves from it. For example, the camel has a hump to store food in the form of fat, and hooves to tread on the desert sand with ease.
The polar region
The temperature in the polar areas may go down to minus 37 degrees centigrade during winters. Animals like polar bears, penguins, and many types offish, musk oxen, reindeer, foxes, seals, whales and birds are found in the Polar Regions.
Polar bears, for example, protect themselves with the thick far on their bodies.
Polar bear The bodies of penguins are white, and merge into the background. They have a thick layer of skin and move around in groups to keep warm. Their streamlined bodies and webbed feet make penguins? swift swimmers. Water retains its warmth under the icy layer. Fish go deeper in the water to stay warm. Birds have to stay warm to survive. Hence, at the onset of winter, these birds migrate to warmer areas. They come back again in the summer. Siberian cranes migrate to far-off places like Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Sultanpur in Haryana and also to some wetlands of north-eastern India. They fly here all the way from Siberia. Birds travel thousands of kilometers to migrate. During the day, the sun guides them, and the stars do so in the night.
The tropical region
Animals adapt themselves to hot climate in the tropical regions, where the average temperature is higher than 15 degrees centigrade. At the peak of summer, the temperature may cross 40 degrees centigrade. Throughout the year, day and night are equal in duration. These regions receive abundant rainfall. A significant feature about this region is the tropical forest. A wide variety of plants and animals are found in these regions due to the continuous warmth and rain. The major types of animals living in this type of rainforests are monkeys, apes, gorillas, lions, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insects.
The toucan has a long, large beak. This helps it reach the fruits on branches that are otherwise too weak to support its weight. The elephant has such large ears and tusks.
• The large ears help it hear even very soft sounds. They also keep it cool in this hot and humid climate
Red eyed Frog
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The term ecology is derived from two Greek words (oikos- means ‘house’ or place to live and logos means ‘a discussion or study’). Literally, ecology is the study of organism ‘at home’ in their native environment. The term was first introduced by Riter in 1868, but was fully defined by Ernest Haeckel in 1869
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Elephants have the largest brain nearly 11 pounds on average.
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